8 Difference Between Cofactor And Coenzyme With Examples

SHARE

What Is Cofactor?

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein’s biological activity. Many enzymes require cofactors to function properly. Cofactors can be considered “helper molecules’’ that assist enzymes in their action.

Many cofactors will sit in the enzyme site and assist the biding of the substrate. An inactive enzyme without the cofactor is referred to as an Apoenzyme whereas the complete enzyme with cofactors is referred to as holoenzyme.  

Typically, cofactors are metal ions. Some metallic elements have no nutritional value but several trace elements function as cofactors in biochemical reactions, including iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, cobalt, and molybdenum.

What You Need To Know About Cofactor

  1. A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme’s activity as a catalyst (a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction).
  2. Cofactors are inorganic compounds.
  3. Two types of cofactors include coenzymes and prosthetic groups.
  4. Cofactors can be removed from enzyme by denaturing the enzyme.
  5. Cofactors increase the rate of reaction that is catalyzed by the relevant enzyme.
  6. Cofactors like metal ions are covalently bound to an enzyme.
  7. Cofactors aid the function of relative enzyme.
  8. Examples of cofactors include  metal ions like zinc (Zn2+), K+ and Mg2+

What Are Coenzymes?

A coenzyme is an organic non-protein compound that binds with an enzyme to catalyze a reaction. Coenzymes often sit at the active site of an enzyme and aid in recognizing, attracting or repulsing a substrate or product.  Coenzymes are not considered part of an enzyme’s structure. They are sometimes referred to as cosubstrates. Coenzymes can also shuttle chemical groups from one enzyme to another enzyme.

A coenzyme cannot function alone, but can be reused several times when paired with an enzyme.  Some enzymes require several coenzymes and cofactors. Coenzymes takes part in the catalyzed reactions are usually modified during the reaction and may require another enzyme-catalyzed reaction for restoration to their original state.

Examples of Coenzymes

  • The B vitamins serve as coenzymes essential for enzymes to form fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
  • S-adenosyl methionine, a coenzyme which transfers a methyl group in bacteria as well as in Eukaryotes and archea.

What You Need To Know About Coenzyme

  1. A coenzyme is an organic non-protein compound that binds with an enzyme to catalyze a reaction.
  2. Coenzymes are organic molecules.
  3. Coenzyme is a type of cofactor.
  4. Coenzymes can be removed from enzymes easily because they are loosely bound to the enzyme.
  5. A coenzyme cannot function alone, but can be reused several times when paired with an enzyme.
  6. Coenzymes are loosely bound to enzymes.
  7. Coenzymes assist biological transformations.
  8. Vitamins, biotin, coenzyme A are examples of coenzymes.

Also Read: Difference Between Enzyme And Coenzyme

Difference Between Cofactor And Coenzyme In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON COFACTOR COENZYME
Description A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme’s activity as a catalyst. A coenzyme is an organic non-protein compound that binds with an enzyme to catalyze a reaction.  
Nature Cofactors are inorganic compounds.   Coenzymes are organic molecules.  
Types Two types of cofactors include coenzymes and prosthetic groups.   Coenzyme is a type of cofactor.  
Removal From Enzymes Cofactors can be removed from enzyme by denaturing the enzyme.   Coenzymes can be removed from enzymes easily because they are loosely bound to the enzyme.  
How They Work Cofactors increase the rate of reaction that is catalyzed by the relevant enzyme.   A coenzyme cannot function alone, but can be reused several times when paired with an enzyme.  
Bonding To Enzyme Cofactors like metal ions are covalently bound to an enzyme.   Coenzymes are loosely bound to enzymes.  
Function Cofactors aid the function of relative enzyme.   Coenzymes assist biological transformations.  
Examples Examples of cofactors include  metal ions like zinc (Zn2+), K+ and Mg2+   Vitamins, biotin, coenzyme A are examples of coenzymes.  

Comments are closed.