7 Difference Between Organic And Inorganic Chemistry (With Examples)

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What Is Organic Chemistry?

Organic chemistry is the study of structure properties, composition, reactions and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, which include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds with any number of other elements, including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, sulfur and phosphorus.

The study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula whereas the study of properties includes chemical and physical properties and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior and lastly, the study of organic reactions includes chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs and polymers.

What Is Inorganic Chemistry?

Inorganic chemistry is the study of the synthesis, reactions, structure and properties of compounds and elements. The subject is usually taught after the learner has been introduced to organic chemistry because it covers fields including synthetic coordination, organometallic chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, nanomaterials and solid-sate materials with impacts on diverse areas such as catalysis, drug design, functional materials and energy technologies.

 Inorganic compounds are also found in biological systems where they are essential to life processes. Inorganic chemists are usually interested in all of the elements in the period table with special emphasis on transition-metal elements.

Organic Vs. Inorganic Chemistry: The differences

Definition

Organic chemistry deals with all those components whose structure is based on or in which carbon appears and its interactions with other substances or elements (hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen). In contrast, Inorganic chemistry, deals with structure and properties of compounds that do not contain carbon and their interaction with other components.

Chemical bonding

Most organic chemistry compounds have ionic bonds while most of the inorganic compounds have covalent bonds in their atomic structure. A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. Ionic bonding on the other hand is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

Types of chemical reactions

While studying organic chemistry reactions such as combustion, fermentation, hydrogenation and photochemistry are observed while Inorganic chemistry processes such as oxidation, crystallization, electrical conduction, endothermic and exothermic reactions are observed.

Scope of fundamental knowledge

The scope of knowledge while studying organic chemistry involves knowledge of structure of biological material and how it is affected by the interaction with other compounds for example understanding the effect of drugs. In contrast, the scope of knowledge when studying inorganic chemistry involves knowledge of structure and characteristics of non-living materials and creation of different compounds.

Examples of substances under scope of study

Examples of organic substances studied under organic chemistry include: sucrose, methane, DNA, Benzene, Cellulose, hair and fingernails, butter, enzymes, coal, Ethanol etc. In contrast, examples of inorganic substances studied under organic chemistry include: Sodium chloride, Argon, Silver, Brass, Sulfur, Diamond, Carbides, phosgene, carbon disulfide, cyanides etc.

Chemical Classification

In organic chemistry, compounds are classified by functional groups (functional groups are certain groups of atoms within molecules that determine characteristic reactions of those molecules. however, when it comes to Inorganic chemistry, classification of compounds falls into basic categories that is, acid, base, salt or metal.

Salt Formation

Through organic chemistry, compounds cannot form salt due to covalence of carbon while through inorganic chemistry, compounds can form salt.

Also Read: Difference Between Organic And Inorganic Polymers

Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry: Comparison Chart

Basis of Comparison Organic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry
Definition Organic chemistry deals with all those components whose structure is based on or in which carbon appears and its interactions with other substances or elements (hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen). Inorganic chemistry, deals with structure and properties of compounds that do not contain carbon and their interaction with other components.  
Chemical Bonding Most organic chemistry compounds have ionic bonds. Most of the inorganic Chemistry compounds have covalent bonds in their atomic structure.
Type of Chemical Reaction While studying organic chemistry reactions such as combustion, fermentation, hydrogenation and photochemistry are observed. Inorganic chemistry processes such as oxidation, crystallization, electrical conduction, endothermic and exothermic reactions are observed.  
Scope of fundamental Knowledge The scope of knowledge while studying organic chemistry involves knowledge of structure of biological material and how it is affected by the interaction with other compounds for example understanding the effect of drugs. The scope of knowledge when studying inorganic chemistry involves knowledge of structure and characteristics of non-living materials and creation of different compounds.  
Examples of Substances under scope of Study Examples of organic substances studied under organic chemistry include: sucrose, methane, DNA, Benzene, Cellulose, hair and fingernails, butter, enzymes, coal, Ethanol etc. Examples of inorganic substances studied under organic chemistry include: Sodium chloride, Argon, Silver, Brass, Sulfur, Diamond, Carbides, phosgene, carbon disulfide, cyanides etc.  
Chemical  Compounds are classified by functional groups (functional groups are certain groups of atoms within molecules that determine characteristic reactions of those molecules. Classification of compounds falls into basic categories that is, acid, base, salt or metal.  
Salt Formation Through organic chemistry, compounds cannot form salt due to covalence of carbon.  Through inorganic chemistry, compounds can form salt.  

Also Read: Difference Between Organic And Inorganic Compounds

Similarities

  • In both branches of chemistry similar chemical reactions under same principle are observed.
  • Both organic and inorganic chemistry entails practical aspects.