12 Difference Between Self-Pollination And Cross-Pollination

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Understand the difference between Self-Pollination and Cross-pollination. The basis of comparison include: description, the process of pollination, pollinating agent, maturity, progenies, pollen grain transfer, plant yield, adaptability of the plant among others.

The Difference

Cross Pollination

Description

Self pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or sometimes to that of a genetically identical flower (as of the same plant or clone).

In cross-pollination, pollen is transferred from plant to plant by an insect or by the wind, both known as pollinators, specifically, from the pollen grains of the anther to the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species.

Pollination

Self pollination can happen either in the same flower or another flower of the same plant, while cross-pollination can happen between two flowers on different plants.

Pollinators

In self-pollination, the pollinator is not required to transfer pollen grains whereas for cross-pollination to happen, a pollinator is required to transfer the pollen grains.

Maturity

In self-pollination, plants, anther and stigma mature at the same time whereas in cross-pollination, plants, anther and stigma mature at different times.

Progenies

Self pollination causes homogeneous condition in progenies, the progenies will be more or less genetically similar to the parent plant.  Cross pollination on the other hand, cause heterozygous condition in progenies, the progenies will be genetically different from the parents.

Pollen Grains Transfer

Pollen grains in self-pollination are directly transferred onto the stigma of the flower whereas in cross-pollination, pollen grains are transferred through insects, wind, water, animals, etc.

Pollination Process

The process of self-pollination is carried out even when flowers are closed whereas, the process of cross-pollination only happens when the flower is open.

Number of Pollen

In cross-pollination, there are a very large number of pollen grains, but in self-pollination there are very small numbers of pollen grains.

Adaptability of Plant

In self-pollinated plants, adaptability of progenies towards the changing environmental conditions is very much less. On the contrary, in cross-pollinated plants, adaptability of progenies to the changing environmental conditions will be more due to high variability in genes.

New Variety and New Species

Self-pollination does not have an evolutionary significance in population because it never results in new variety or new species whereas has a high evolutionary significance cross-pollination will always result in new varieties and new species.

Species of Occurrence

Self-pollination occurs in plums, pears, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, runner, beans, pumpkins, daffodils, tulips, lavender and maize among other plants.

Cross-Pollination occurs in orchids, peas, sunflowers, wheat, barley, oats, rice, tomatoes, potatoes, tomatoes and peaches among other plants.

Plant Yield

With self-pollination plant yields drastically falls other a given period of time. On the other hand, cross-pollination increases plant yield over a given period of time.

Also Read: Difference Between Pollination And Fertilization

Difference Between Self-pollination And Cross-pollination In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISION SELF-POLLINATION CROSS-POLLINATION
DESCRIPTION Self pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or sometimes to that of a genetically identical flower (as of the same plant or clone).   In cross pollination, pollen is transferred from plant to plant by an insect or by the wind, both known as pollinators, specifically, from the pollen grains of the anther to the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species.  
POLLINATION Can happen either in the same flower or another flower of the same plant.   Can happen between two flowers on different plants.  
POLLINATING AGENT A pollinating agent is not required to transfer pollen grains.   A pollinating agent is required to transfer the pollen grains.  
MATURITY Plants, anther and stigma mature at the same time.   Plants and stigma mature at different times.
PROGENIES Self pollination causes homogeneous condition in progenies, the progenies will be more or less genetically similar to the parent plant.  Cross pollination on the other hand, cause heterozygous condition in progenies, the progenies will be genetically different from the parents.  
POLLEN GRAINS TRANSFER Pollen grains in self-pollination are directly transferred onto the stigma of the flower.   Cross-pollination, pollen grains are transferred through insects, wind, water, animals, etc.  
POLLINATION PROCESS The process of self pollination is carried out even when flowers are closed.   The process of cross-pollination only happens when the flower is open.  
Adaptability of Plant In self-pollinated plants, adaptability of progenies towards the changing environmental conditions is very much less.   Cross-pollinated plants, adaptability of progenies to the changing environmental conditions will be more due to high variability in genes.
New Varieties and Species Self-pollination does not have an evolutionary significance in population because it never results in new variety or new species. Cross-pollination has a high evolutionary significance cross-pollination will always result in new varieties and new species.  
Species of Occurrence Self-pollination occurs in:  Plums, pears, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, runner, beans, pumpkins, daffodils, tulips, lavender and maize among other plants.   Cross-Pollination occurs in orchids, peas, sunflowers, wheat, barley, oats, rice, tomatoes, potatoes, tomatoes and peaches among other plants.  
PLANT YIELD With self-pollination plant yields drastically falls other a given period of time. Cross-pollination increases plant yield over a given period of time.  

Also Read: Difference Between Gymnosperms And Angiosperms

 

Self-pollination

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross-pollination and Self-pollination?

Advantages of Cross-Pollination

  1. Cross-pollination results to new genes as a result of fertilization between genetically different gametes.
  2. Cross-pollination improves adaptability of offsprings to environmental conditions and resistance to diseases.
  3. The seeds produced as a result of cross-pollination are good in vigor and vitality.
  4. Due to genetic recombination, recessive characters are eliminated in the lineage.
  5. Cross-pollination improves plant yields.
  6. Cross-pollination has ability to produce more species.

Disadvantages of Cross-Pollination

  1. Most of the pollen grains that are supposed to ensure fertilization happens are wasted in the air.
  2. Chances are high that desirable qualities may get eliminated and unwanted characteristics may get added due to recombination of genes.
  3. The process of cross-pollination only happens when the flower is open.

Advantages of self-pollination

  1. In self-pollination there is no exchange of genes and therefore all the desirable qualities are maintained.
  2. Smaller quantities of pollen grains produced have high chances of causing fertilization to happen.
  3. Self-pollinated plants use less time to grow and also there is uniformity in growth.
  4. Parental characters are maintained.
  5. Self-pollination eliminates some bad character.
  6. The process of self pollination is carried out even when flowers are closed.

Disadvantages of Self-Pollination  

  1. There is no new mixing up of genes and therefore offsprings are very vulnerable to environmental conditions and diseases.
  2. Self-pollination reduces vigor and vitality of successive generations.
  3. Self pollination has no evolutionary significance in the population.

Summary

Selfpollination is the transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or sometimes to that of a genetically identical flower (as of the same plant or clone).

In crosspollination, pollen is transferred from plant to plant by an insect or by the wind, both known as pollinators, specifically, from the pollen grains of the anther to the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species.