Polysaccharide Vs. Disaccharide Vs. Monosaccharide: 12 Major Differences &Similarities

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Get to understand the clear distinction between polysaccharide, monosaccharide and disaccharide. The basis on distinction include: Description, Classification, solubility, Taste, chemical structure, molecular weight and Examples.

Key Differences

Description

  • Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bounded together by glycosidic bonds.
  • A disaccharide also known as double sugar or bivose, is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds.
  • Monosacharides also referred to as simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.

Classification

  • Polysaccharides can be broadly classified into two classes: Homo-polysaccharides which are made up of one type of monosaccharide units i.e stach, glycogen and cellulose. The second classification is Hetero-polysaccharides which are made up of two or more types of monosaccharide units i.e hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, keratin sulfate and heparin.
  • Disaccharides are not further classified into different types.
  • Monosaccharides can be classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain for example triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7) and so on.

Solubility

  • Polysaccharides are insoluble in water.
  • Most of disaccharides are soluble in water.
  • Monosaccharides are soluble in water, but insoluble in non polar solvents.

Taste

  • Polyssacharides do not have a sweet taste.
  • Disaccharides have a sweet taste.
  • Monosaccharides have a sweet taste.

Reducing Property

  • Polysaccharides are non-reducing sugars.
  • Some disaccharides are reducing sugars while others are non-reducing sugars.                  
  • Monosaccharides are reducing sugars.

Number of Monomers

  • Polysaccharides being a polymeric monomer is composed of a large number of monomers.
  • Disaccharides are composed of two monomers.
  • Monosaccharides have a single monomer.

Chemical Structure

  • Polysaccharides have complex, branched structures.
  • Disaccharides have simple, linear, unbranched or branched structures.
  • Monosaccharides have simple, linear, unbranched structures.

Examples

  • Examples of polysaccharides include starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin.
  • Examples of disaccharides include sucrose, lactose and maltose.
  • Example of monosaccharides includes glucose, fructose and galactose.

Chemical Rings

  • Polysaccharides have many ring structures.
  • Disaccharides have two ring structures.
  • Monosaccharides have a single ring structure.

Significance

  • Polysaccharides are the structural component of cell walls and act as the energy reserves.
  • Plants use disaccharides to transport monosaccharides like glucose, fructose and galactose between cells.
  • Monosaccharides are chief energy source of energy with 4 calories per gram.

Molecular Weight

  • Polysaccharides have a relatively larger molecular weight when compared to disaccharides.
  • Disaccharides have a relatively larger molecular weight when compared to monosaccharides.
  • Monosaccharides have a relatively lower molecular weight when compared to disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Examples of Foods

  • Examples of polysaccharide food include wheat, oats, buckwheat, whole-grain bread, brown rice, legumes and rye.
  • Disaccharides are usually added as sweeteners to food, an example is table sugar. Disaccharides are also found in foods like beetroot.
  • Foods that can be said to be examples of monosaccharides include cane sugars, honey, beans, fruits and dairy products.

Differences Between Monosaccharide, Polysaccharide And Disaccharide In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON MONOSACCHARIDE DISACCHARIDE POLYSACCHARIDE
Description Monosacharides also referred to as simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates. A disaccharide also known as double sugar or bivose, is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds.   Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bounded together by glycosidic bonds.  
Classification Monosaccharides can be classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain for example triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7) and so on. Not further classified into different types. Homo-polysaccharides. Hetero-polysaccharide.  
Solubility Soluble in water.     Soluble in water.   Insoluble in water.
Taste Have a sweet taste.     Have a sweet taste. Do not have a sweet taste.
Reducing Property Reducing sugars. Reducing sugars while others are non-reducing sugars. Non reducing sugars.
Number of Monomers Has a single monomer. Have two monomers. Is composed of a large number of monomers.  
Chemical Structure Have simple, linear, unbranched structures. Have simple, linear, unbranched or branched structures. Have complex, branched structures. ]  
Examples Glucose, Fructose and Galactose. Sucrose, lactose and Maltose.   Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose and Chitin.
Chemical Ring Structure Single ring structure.     Two ring structure. Have many ring structures.
Significance Monosaccharides are chief energy source of energy with 4 calories per gram.   Plants use disaccharides to transport monosaccharides like glucose, fructose and galactose between cells. Polysaccharides re the structural component of cell walls and act as the energy reserves.  
Molecular Weight Monosaccharides have a relatively lower molecular weight when compared to disaccharides and polysaccharides.   Disaccharides have a relatively larger molecular weight when compared to monosaccharides. Polysaccharides have a relatively larger molecular weight when compared to disaccharides.  
Example of Foods Foods that can be said to be examples of monosaccharides include cane sugars, honey, beans, fruits and dairy products.   Disaccharides are usually added as sweeteners to food, an example is table sugar. Disaccharides are also found in foods like beetroot.  Examples of polysaccharide food include wheat, oats, buckwheat, whole-grain bread, brown rice, legumes and rye.  

What is the main Difference Between Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and Polysaccharide?

  •  Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bounded together by glycosidic bonds.
  • Disaccharide also known as double sugar or bivose, is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds.
  • Monosacharides also referred to as simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.