Difference Between XHTML And HTML5

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What is Xhtml?

Stands for “Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.” XHTML is markup language used to create webpages. It is similar to HTML but uses a more strict XML-based syntax. The first version of XHTML (1.0) was standardized in 2000. For several years, XHTML was the most common language used to create websites. It has since been superseded by HTML5.

Since XHTML is based on XML rather than HTML, webpages coded in XHTML must conform to a strict XML syntax. A webpage that uses the “XHTML Strict” doctype (DTD) cannot contain any errors or invalid tags, leaving no ambiguity for the web browser. However, most XHTML sites used the “XHTML Transitional” doctype, which does not require perfect syntax and even allows HTML 4.01 tags.

The XHTML was developed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It helps web developers to make the transition from HTML to XML. Using XHTML, developers can enter the XML world with all the features of it, and they can still remain confident about the backward and future compatibility of the content. The XHTML 1.0 is the first document type in the XHTML family and it is Recommended by W3C in 26 January 2000. The XHTML 1.1 is Recommended by W3c in 31 May 2001. The XHTML5 is a standard and is used to develop an XML adaptation of the HTML5 specification.
The XHTML documents contains three parts, which are discussed below:

  • DOCTYPE: It is used to declare a DTD
  • head: The head section is used to declare the title and other attributes.
  • body: The body tag contains the content of web pages. It consists many tags.

XHTML Elements

XHTML elements are the building blocks of a XHTML document. The W3C has defined a number of XHTML elements that correspond to common types of information found in documents, such as

  • headings
  • paragraphs
  • quotes
  • blockquotes
  • lists
  • images
  • etc.

What you need to know about XHTML

  • XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It was launched by World Wide Web Consortium.
  • There are three set of Document Type Declaration (DTD) in XHTML namely Strict, Transitional and Frameset which are complex.
  • HTML doesn’t support audio and video tags and instead, depends on third party plugins.
  • This is an application which belongs to XML.
  • XHTML is a combination of HTML and XML.
  • There are no tags for header, footer, section, article, nav and divs with classes; instead, ids have to be used.
  • Does not support any Geo-location API.
  • Best suited for desktop computers.
  • XHTML code is more descriptive and demonstrating.
  • Not compatible with all browsers e.g Internet Explorer 8.
  • Requires an XML parser.
  • It is case sensitive and in lower case.
  • Type attribute is mandatory for script element.
  • Nesting of elements should be maintained.

Also Read: Difference Between Div And Span Tag

What is HTML5?

HTML5 is the fifth major standard of HTML. Development of the standard began in 2007 and HTML5 websites started becoming mainstream in 2010. The final HTML5 standard was officially standardized by W3C on October 28, 2014.

The previous HTML standard, HTML 4.01, was standardized in 1999 – fifteen years before the HTML5 standard was published. However, in the decade preceding HTML5, most websites were written in XHTML, a more strict version of HTML published in 2000. HTML5 was designed to supersede both HTML 4 and XHTML by providing web developers with a simpler standard that includes several new features for the modern web.

The table below includes a list of new elements, or tags, introduced in HTML5 that are used to define the structure of a document.

TagDescription
<header>Defines the webpage header
<footer>Defines the page footer
<nav>Defines the navigation bar
<main>Defines the main content of a webpage
<article>Defines an article within a page
<section>Defines a section of a document or article
<aside>Defines content outside a page’s primary content
  • HTML5 stands for Hypertext Markup language. It was launched by the partnership between the World Wide Web Consortium and Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group.
  • Simpler and only one document type declaration is present. It does not have the option to add or keep out a DTD url in the doctype.
  • HTML5 provides better support for different types of media-for example, audio and video. It is done by providing additional tags for media files.
  • This is an application which belongs ton Standard Generalized Markup Language.
  • HTML5 is the latest version of HTML released till date.
  • There are tags for header, footer, section, article and nav. This makes it easier to write and read code.
  • Includes an API that enable the users to share their location.
  • It is more compatible with mobile devices- smartphones and tablets.
  • HTML 5 is unexpressive but they have semantic meaning.
  • It is compatible with all browsers.
  • Requires an HTML specific parser.
  • It is not case sensitive.
  • Type attribute may be skipped for script element.
  • There is no restriction such as maintain nesting of elements.

Also Read: Difference Between Server Side And Client Side Scripting

Difference Between XHTML And HTML5 In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON XHTML HTML5
Description XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It was launched by World Wide Web Consortium.   HTML stands for Hypertext Markup language. It was launched by the partnership between the World Wide Web Consortium and Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group.  
Document Type Declaration There are three set of Document Type Declaration (DTD) in XHTML namely Strict, Transitional and Frameset which are complex.   Simpler and only one document type declaration is present. It does not have the option to add or keep out a DTD url in the doctype.  
Media Support HTML doesn’t support audio and video tags and instead, depends on third party plugins.   HTML5 provides better support for different types of media-for example, audio and video. It is done by providing additional tags for media files.  
Nature This is an application which belongs to XML.   This is an application which belongs ton Standard Generalized Markup Language.  
Tags There are no tags for header, footer, section, article, nav and divs with classes; instead, ids have to be used.   There are tags for header, footer, section, article and nav. This makes it easier to write and read code.  
API Does not support any Geo-location API.   Includes an API that enable the users to share their location.  
Compatibility Best suited for desktop computers.   It is more compatible with mobile devices- smartphones and tablets.  
Code XHTML code is more descriptive and demonstrating.   HTML 5 is unexpressive but they have semantic meaning.  
Parser Requires an XML parser.   Requires an HTML specific parser.  
Case Sensitivity It is case sensitive and in lower case.   It is not case sensitive.  
Type Attribute Type attribute is mandatory for script element.   Type attribute may be skipped for script element.  
Nesting Elements Nesting of elements should be maintained.   There is no restriction such as maintain nesting of elements.  

Conclusion

XHTML is an acronym for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It is a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) which is a system for organizing and defining parts of a document, like titles, or headings, or paragraphs, or images, through markup, also known as tagging. XHTML is the most widely used language used to create documents on the World Wide Web, and is considered a replacement for HTML, the original web markup language.