12 Difference Between Procedural And Object Oriented Programming With Examples

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Procedural programming can be described as a programming model which is derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of calling procedures. The Procedures which can also be referred to as routines, functions or subroutines normally consists of many computational steps to be carried out.  During a program’s execution, any given procedure might be called at any point, including other procedures or itself.

Object oriented programming can be described as a programming model which is based upon the concept of objects. Objects contain data in the form of attributes and code in the form of methods. In this model of programming, computer programs are usually designed using the concept of objects that interact with real world.

object oriented programming

There are normally many object oriented programming languages; however the most popular ones are class-based, meaning that objects are instances of classes which also determine their types.

The focus of procedural programming is to break down a programming task into a collection of variables, data structures and subroutines whereas in object-oriented programming is to break down a programming task into objects that expose behavior (methods) and data (members or attributes) using interfaces.

The underlying difference between the two is that, procedural programming uses procedures to operate on data structures whereas object-oriented programming bundles the two together, so an ‘’object’’ which is an instance of a class, operates on its ‘’own’’ data structure.

The Key Difference               

  1. In object oriented programming, program is divided into parts referred to as objects whereas in procedural oriented programming, program is divided into small parts referred to as functions.
  2. In object oriented programming, objects can move and communicate with each other through member function whereas in procedural oriented programming, data can move freely from function to function in the system.
  3. In object oriented programming, importance is given to the data rather than procedures or functions because it works as a real world. On the other hand, in procedural oriented programming, importance is not given to data but to functions as well as sequence of actions to be done.
  4.  Object oriented programming follows Bottom Up approach whereas Procedural oriented programming follows Top Down approach.
  5. Objected oriented programming provides data hiding so it is more secure. But procedural programming does not have any proper way for hiding data so it is less secure.
  6. In object oriented programming, data is more important than function. On the other hand, in procedural programming, function is more important than data.
  7. Overloading in the form of function overloading and operator overloading is possible in object oriented programming whereas in procedural oriented programming, overloading is not possible.
  8. In Object oriented programming, there are three accessing modes “public”, “private”,  “protected’’ that are used as an accessing share to access attributes or functions. On the other hand, in procedural oriented programming, there is no specific accessing mode to access attributes or functions in the program.
  9. The existing code in object oriented programming can be reused by the feature referred to as inheritance. Whereas there is no such feature in procedural oriented programming.
  10. In object oriented programming, adding new data and function is easy whereas adding new data and function is not easy in procedural oriented programming.
  11. In object oriented programming, data cannot move easily from function to function, it can be kept public or private so we can control the access of data. In procedural oriented programming, most function uses global data for sharing that can be accessed freely from function to function in the system.
  12. Examples of object oriented programming languages include: C++, Java, VB.NET, C#.NET and Python on the other hand, C, VB, Fortran and Pascal are common examples of procedure oriented languages.

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Procedural Oriented Programming (POP) Vs. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON     OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (OOP) PROCEDURAL ORIENTED PROGRAMMING  (POP)
Division Of Program In object oriented programming, program is divided into parts referred to as objects. In procedural oriented programming, program is divided into small parts referred to as functions.  
Data Movement Objects can move and communicate with each other through member function. Data can move freely from function to function in the system.  
Importance Importance is given to the data rather than procedures or functions because it works as a real world. Importance is not given to data but to functions as well as sequence of actions to be done.  
Approach Object oriented programming follows Bottom Up approach.     Procedural oriented programming follows Top Down approach.
Security Objected oriented programming provides data hiding so it is more secure.   But procedural programming does not have any proper way for hiding data so it is less secure.
Virtual Classes Concept of virtual function appears during inheritance.    No concept of virtual classes.  
Most Important Attribute Data is more important than function. Function is more important than data.  
Overloading Overloading in the form of function overloading and operator overloading is possible in object oriented programming.   In procedural oriented programming, overloading is not possible.
Access Modes In Object oriented programming, there are three accessing modes “public”, “private”,  “protected’’ that are used as an accessing share to access attributes or functions. In procedural oriented programming, there is no specific accessing mode to access attributes or functions in the program.  
Code Reusability The existing code in object oriented programming can be reused by the feature referred to as inheritance.   There is no such feature in procedural oriented programming.
Addition of New Data And Function In object oriented programming, adding new data and function is easy. Adding new data and function is not easy in procedural oriented programming.  
Problem Size It is suitable for solving big problems. It is not suitable for solving big problems.    
Data Access In object oriented programming, data cannot move easily from function to function, it can be kept public or private so we can control the access of data. In procedural oriented programming, most function uses global data for sharing that can be accessed freely from function to function in the system.  
Examples Examples of object oriented programming languages include: C++, Java, VB.NET, C#.NET and Python.    C, VB, Fortran and Pascal are common examples of procedure oriented languages.

READ FURTHER: Difference Between While And Do-While Loop In Java With Examples