12 Difference Between Davis And Penck Cycle Of Erosion

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Penck And Davis Cycle of Erosion Theory

 William Morris Davis was an American geographer. He gave the cycle of erosion in 1899 based on the erosion pattern of American mountainous Valleys. As per Davis, in the beginning, there was a flat surface and due to endogenic force, sudden landmass uplifted then the process of landform development started. During landform development, uplifted landmasses undergo in sequence order stages. At the old stage, end product development is peneplain. The development of peneplain will be the same under uniform climatic conditions. Landform development is in the form of ‘’slope decline’’.

Walter Penck was a German geographer, he studied the Davis erosional cycle model and agreed with many thought about it, but disagreed on the process and stages components (i.e trio of Davis are the structure, process and stages) of Davis erosional model. Penck rejected that stage is not sequential and there may be interrupted by rejuvenation. 

Walter Penck gave a morphological system model in 1924 also referred also known as cycle of erosion. As per Walter Penck, the Endogenic force also interferes with the cycle of erosion through rejuvenation. Hence, the erosion cycle is a never-ending process. The erosional cycle is not time-dependent as Davis proposed.

What You Need To Know About Davis Cycle

  1. Davis suggested landform evolution as a function of structure process and stage (trip of Davis). It can be said that Davis limited his idea upto exogenic forces and almost ignored endogenic forces.
  2. Davis Cycle of erosion has three stages that is, youth, mature, and old stage.
  3. According to Davis, upliftment finished before degradation starts.
  4. According to Davis, the period of upliftment is small.
  5. The rate of upliftment is very rapid, according to davis.
  6. Davis didn’t back his theory by a concrete slope development idea.
  7. The end product of the Davis Cycle of erosion was flat extensive featureless plain which he referred to as Peneplain.
  8. Davis Geographical Cycle of Erosion is a monocycle that means cycle complete after the old stage of landforms.
  9. In Davis cycle, landforms are the result of Davis trios which include: structure, process,  and Time.
  10. Davis’s cycle of landform development is time-dependent.
  11. Davis limited his idea upto the humid and subhumid areas (evident from his fluvial cycle of erosion later extended to other regions).
  12. Landform development is a form of “slope decline”; for example “V” shaped valley get converted to “U” shaped valley and then featureless peneplain in Davisian cycle of erosion 

What You Need To Know About Penck Cycle

  1. Penck suggested that landform was resultant of competition between endogenic and exogenic forces. Penck paid equal attention to both the forces.  
  2. Penck completely rejected the stages. He mentioned five conditions i.e Primarumpf, Aufsteigende, Gleichforminge, Absteigende, and Endrumpf.
  3. According to Penck, upliftment and degradation starts together as soon as the landmass comes above the sea level.
  4. According to Penck, the period of upliftment is a long process.
  5. The rate of upliftment is sometimes slower and sometimes higher.
  6. Penck’s cycle of erosion contained the idea regarding slope replacement.
  7. The end product of the Penck cycle was endrumpf or peneplains (not entirely featureless).
  8. The Penck erosion cycle is polycyclic that means a never-ending process; the cycle starts again by the rejuvenation of landforms.
  9. Penck’s landforms are the result of the ratio between the intensity of endogenic and exogenic forces.
  10. The Penck cycle of erosion is not time-dependent.
  11. Penck original idea of cycle of erosion was applicable to arid, semi-arid and tropical regions.
  12. Landform development in the Penck cycle of erosion is in form of “slope replacement” where a free face slope and concave slopes get replaced to rectilinear slopes.

Also Read: Difference Between Chemical And Physical Weathering

Difference Between Davis And Penck Cycle Of Erosion In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON DAVIS CYCLE OF EROSION PENCK CYCLE OF EROSION
Description Davis suggested landform evolution as a function of structure process and stage (trip of Davis). It can be said that Davis limited his idea upto exogenic forces and almost ignored endogenic forces.   Penck suggested that landform was resultant of competition between endogenic and exogenic forces. Penck paid equal attention to both the forces.    
Stages Davis Cycle of erosion has three stages that is, youth, mature, and old stage.   Penck completely rejected the stages. He mentioned five conditions i.e Primarumpf, Aufsteigende, Gleichforminge, Absteigende, and Endrumpf.  
Upliftment According to Davis, upliftment finished before degradation starts.   According to Penck, upliftment and degradation starts together as soon as the landmass comes above the sea level.  
Period Of Upliftment According to Davis, the period of upliftment is small.   According to Penck, the period of upliftment is a long process.  
Rate Of Upliftment The rate of upliftment is very rapid, according to davis.   The rate of upliftment is sometimes slower and sometimes higher.  
Slope Development Davis didn’t back his theory by a concrete slope development idea.   Penck’s cycle of erosion contained the idea regarding slope replacement.  
End Product The end product of the Davis Cycle of erosion was flat extensive featureless plain which he referred to as Peneplain.   The end product of the Penck cycle was endrumpf or peneplains (not entirely featureless).  
Nature Davis Geographical Cycle of Erosion is a monocycle that means cycle complete after the old stage of landforms.   The Penck erosion cycle is polycyclic that means a never-ending process; the cycle starts again by the rejuvenation of landforms.  
Cause In Davis cycle, landforms are the result of Davis trios which include: structure, process, and Time.   Penck’s landforms are the result of the ratio between the intensity of endogenic and exogenic forces.  
Time-Dependency Davis’s cycle of landform development is time-dependent.   The Penck cycle of erosion is not time-dependent.  
Applicability Davis limited his idea upto the humid and subhumid areas (evident from his fluvial cycle of erosion later extended to other regions).   Penck original idea of cycle of erosion was applicable to arid, semi-arid and tropical regions.  
Landform Development Landform development is a form of “slope decline”; for example “V” shaped valley get converted to “U” shaped valley and then featureless peneplain in Davisian cycle of erosion    Landform development in the Penck cycle of erosion is in form of “slope replacement” where a free face slope and concave slopes get replaced to rectilinear slopes.