10 Difference Between Cytokinesis in plant Cell And Cytokinesis in Animals

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Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.  Cytokinesis can also be referred to as Cytoplasmic division or cell cleavage. In animal cells this is achieved by constriction of the plasma membrane, whereas in higher plants, it is accomplished through a centrifugal process which involves an expanding cell plate that must find and fuse with predetermined zone of the plasma membrane to produce a new cell wall.

Cytokinesis typically occurs at the end of mitosis, after telophase but the two are independent processes. In most animals, Cytokinesis begins sometime in late anaphase or early telophase, to ensure the chromosomes have been completely segregated.

During Cytokinesis the spindle apparatus divides and moves duplicated chromatids into the cytoplasm of the separating daughter cells. It thereby ensures that chromosome number and complement are maintained from one generation to the next and that, except in special cases, the daughter cells will be functional copies of the parent cell. After the completion of the telophase and Cytokinesis, each daughter cell enters the interphase of the cell cycle.

Cytokinesis In Plants

Cytokinesis in plant cells involves the formation and insertion of a new cell wall that separates daughter nuclei after mitosis. The deposition of the new wall is regulated by a structure referred to as the phragmoplast which contains microtubules, actin filaments and membranes.

At the end of anaphase, Golgi-derived secretory vesicles carrying cell wall materials are transported to the equator of a dividing cell. Fusion of these vesicles gives rise to a membrane-bound compartment, the cell plate. The cell plate expands from the middle out (centrifugally) until it reaches the ‘’zone of attachment’’ or division site on the mother cell wall. Once this attachment has taken place, the cell plate undergoes a complex process of maturation during which callose is replaced by cellulose and pectin.

What You Need To Know About Cytokinesis In Plants

  1. The process of division of the cytoplasm in the plant cell is what is referred to as Cytokinesis in the plant cell.
  2. It starts with the formation of cell plate during telophase.
  3. Vesicles fuse to form cell plate.
  4. In plant Cytokinesis, cell plate formation takes place to divide cytoplasm into two daughter cells.
  5. The middle part of the spindle remains active during Cytokinesis in a plant cell. It forms a complex referred to as phragmoplast.
  6. In plant cell Cytokinesis, the cell plate develops from the center of the cell towards the lateral walls. Therefore, it is described as centrifugal.
  7. A row of vesicles is formed in the center of the cell during plant cell Cytokinesis.
  8. Microfilaments play a little role in plant cell Cytokinesis.
  9. A mid body is absent in plant cell Cytokinesis.
  10. The new cell membrane is derived from vesicles of Golgi apparatus.

Cytokinesis In Animals

In animals, the cytoplasm is constricted in much the same way as a balloon would be, until the constriction becomes so tight that, two daughter cell are formed. This begins with the formation of a cell furrow or cleavage furrow (a puckering in the cell membrane enclosing the genetic material and cytoplasm).

The final process of Cytokinesis in animal cells is referred to as abscission when the actin-myosin contractile ring that created the cytokinetic furrow contracts all round and the outer plasma membranes of each cell undergoes fission to separate the two daughter cells completely.

Actin and myosin are the same proteins that cause muscles to contract in muscle cells. The muscle cells are full of actin filaments, and the protein myosin pulls them together with ATP energy. As the actin fibers pull together, it creates a small ring. All of the cytoplasm and organelles are eventually excluded from the ring, leaving the mid-body structure, which also has to separate through the process of abscission.

What You Need To Know About Cytokinesis In Animals

  1. The process of division of cytoplasm in an animal cell is what is referred to as Cytokinesis in animal cell.
  2. It starts as a constriction in the cell membrane during late anaphase or early telophase.
  3. A cell plate is not formed.
  4. Cytokinesis in the animal cell takes place through cleavage.
  5. During Cytokinesis in an animal cell, spindles degenerate.
  6. In animal cell Cytokinesis, the furrow starts to deepen from the lateral /periphery sides of the cell towards the center. Therefore, it is known as centripetal.
  7. There is no row of vesicles that form during animal cell Cytokinesis.
  8. In animal cell Cytokinesis, microfilaments are very actively involved.
  9. A mid body of dense fibrous and vesicular material is formed in the middle.
  10. The new cell membrane is usually derived from endoplasmic reticulum.

Also Read: Difference Between Active And Passive Transport

Difference Between Cytokinesis In Plant Cell And Cytokinesis In Animals

BASIS OF COMPARISON CYTOKINESIS IN PLANTS CYTOKINESIS IN ANIMALS
Description The process of division of the cytoplasm in the plant cell is what is referred to as Cytokinesis in the plant cell.   The process of division of cytoplasm in an animal cell is what is referred to as Cytokinesis in animal cell.  
How It Begins It starts with the formation of cell plate during telophase.   It starts as a constriction in the cell membrane during late anaphase or early telophase.  
Cell Plate Formation Vesicles fuse to form cell plate.   A cell plate is not formed.  
Spindle Apparatus The middle part of the spindle remains active during Cytokinesis in a plant cell. It forms a complex referred to as phragmoplast.   During Cytokinesis in an animal cell, spindles degenerate.  
Process Of Cytokinesis In plant Cytokinesis, cell plate formation takes place to divide cytoplasm into two daughter cells.   Cytokinesis in the animal cell takes place through cleavage.  
Division In plant cell Cytokinesis, the cell plate develops from the center of the cell towards the lateral walls. Therefore, it is described as centrifugal.   In animal cell Cytokinesis, the furrow starts to deepen from the lateral /periphery sides of the cell towards the center. Therefore, it is known as centripetal.  
Row Of Vesicles A row of vesicles is formed in the center of the cell during plant cell Cytokinesis.   There is no row of vesicles that form during animal cell Cytokinesis.  
Microfilaments Microfilaments play a little role in plant cell Cytokinesis.   In animal cell Cytokinesis, microfilaments are very actively involved.  
Mid Body A mid body is absent in plant cell Cytokinesis.   A mid body of dense fibrous and vesicular material is formed in the middle.  
New Cell Membrane The new cell membrane is derived from vesicles of Golgi apparatus.   The new cell membrane is usually derived from endoplasmic reticulum.  

Also Read: Difference Between Meiosis And Mitosis

Summary

Cytokinesis occurs in mitosis and meiosis for both plant and animal cells. The ultimate objective is to divide the parent cell into daughter cells. In plants, this occurs when a cell wall forms in between the daughter cells. In animals, this occurs when a cleavage furrow forms.