7 Difference Between Aldehyde And Ketone

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What Is Aldehyde?

Aldehyde can be described as any group of organic compounds in which a carbon atom shares a double bond with an oxygen atom, a single bond with a hydrogen atom and a single bond with another atom or group of atoms (designated R in general chemical formulas and structure diagrams).

The carbon bond between carbon and oxygen is the characteristic of all aldehydes and is referred to as Carbonyl group. The carbon atoms bonded to the carbonyl group of an aldehyde may be part of saturated or unsaturated alkyl groups or they may be alicyclic, aromatic or heterocyclic. Many aldehydes have pleasant odor and in principle, they are derived from alcohols by dehydrogenation (removal of oxygen) from which process came the name aldehyde.  

The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix –al to aldehydes. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly referred to as formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of the carbon chain, it is always given the #1 location position in numbering and it is not necessary  to include it in the name

Aldehydes are commonly used as solvents and perfume ingredients in the production of dyes and pharmaceuticals.

What You Need To Know About Aldehyde

  1. Aldehyde is an organic compound having the general chemical formula R-CHO.
  2. Aldehydes take their name from their parent alkane chains. The –‘’e’’ is removed from the end and is replaced with –‘’al’’
  3. In aldehydes, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is bounded to a hydrogen and one carbon atom.
  4. Aldehydes have carbonyl groups found at the end of the carbon chain.
  5. Aldehydes are usually found in volatile compounds such as fragrance compounds.
  6. Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones.
  7. Aldehydes undergo oxidation forming carboxylic acids.

What Is Ketone?

Ketone can be described as any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl functional group bridging two groups of atoms. Examples include many sugars (ketoses), many steroids e.g testosterone and the solvent acetone.

The general formula for ketone is RC(=O)R’ where R and R’ are alkyl or aryl groups. IUPAC ketone functional group names contain ‘’oxo’’ or ‘’keto’’. Ketones are named by changing the –‘’e’’ on the end of the parent alkane named to –‘’one’’. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring and its position is usually given by a location number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group.  Though very simple ketones such as propane and phenylethanone do not require a locator number since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function.

Many ketones are of great importance in industry and in biology. Only a small number of ketones are manufactured on a large scale in industry. They can be synthesized by a wide variety of methods and because of their ease of preparation, relative stability and high reactivity; they are nearly ideal chemical intermediates.  Many complex organic compounds are synthesized using ketones as building blocks. They are most widely used as solvent, especially in industries manufacturing explosives, lacquers, paints and textiles. Ketones are also used in tanning as preservatives and in hydraulic fluids.

What You Need To Know About Ketone

  1. Ketone is an organic compound having the general chemical formula R-CO-R
  2. Ketones take their name from parent alkane chains. The ending –‘’e’’ is removed and replaced with –‘’one’’.
  3. In ketones, the carbon atom is bounded to two other carbon atoms.
  4. Ketones have carbonyl groups usually positioned at the center of the chain.
  5. Ketones are commonly found in sugars and are referred to as ketoses in general.
  6. Ketones are generally less reactive than aldehydes.
  7. Ketones cannot be oxidized without breaking the carbon chain.

Also Read: Difference Between Ketose And Aldose

Difference Between Aldehyde And Ketone In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON ALDEHYDE KETONE
Description Aldehyde is an organic compound having the general chemical formula R-CHO.   Ketone is an organic compound having the general chemical formula R-CO-R  
Nomenclature Aldehydes take their name from their parent alkane chains. The –‘’e’’ is removed from the end and is replaced with –‘’al’’   Ketones take their name from parent alkane chains. The ending –‘’e’’ is removed and replaced with –‘’one’’.  
Carbon Atoms In aldehydes, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is bounded to a hydrogen and one carbon atom.   In ketones, the carbon atom is bounded to two other carbon atoms.  
Carbonyl Functional Group Aldehydes have carbonyl groups found at the end of the carbon chain.   Ketones have carbonyl groups usually positioned at the center of the chain.  
Presence Aldehydes are usually found in volatile compounds such as fragrance compounds.   Ketones are commonly found in sugars and are referred to as ketoses in general.  
Reactivity Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones.   Ketones are generally less reactive than aldehydes.  
Oxidation Aldehydes undergo oxidation forming carboxylic acids.   Ketones cannot be oxidized without breaking the carbon chain.  

Also Read: Difference Between Reducing Sugar And Non-Reducing Sugar