All diatomic molecules are linear, which is the simplest spatial arrangement of atoms.
Homonuclear molecules are molecules composed of only one type of element. Homonuclear molecules may consist of various numbers of atoms, depending on the element’s properties. Some elements form molecules of more than one size. The most familiar homonuclear molecules are diatomic, meaning they consist of two atoms, though not all diatomic molecules are homonuclear. Homonuclear diatomic molecules include:
- All of the halogens (Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Bromine).
Heteronuclear molecules are molecules that are composed of two atoms of different elements chemically combined. For example, a molecule of water (H2O) is heteronuclear because it has atoms of two different elements, Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). Other examples include:
- Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
- Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)
- Magnesium Oxide (MgO)
- Potassium Bromide (Kbr)
- Silicon Oxide (SiO)
What You Need To Know About Homonuclear Molecules
- Homonuclear molecules are molecules composed of two atoms of the same element chemically combined like in the case of oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2).
- The chemical bonds between the atoms are covalent and nonpolar.
- Examples of homonuclear molecules include: Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Chlorine (Cl2), Iodine (I2) and Bromine (Br2).
- Molecular orbitals for homonuclear diatomic molecules contain equal contributions from each interacting atomic orbital.
- The bond in a homonuclear diatomic molecule is non-polar due to the electronegativity difference of zero. Electronegativity is the power of an atom of an element to attract electrons toward itself when it is part of a compound.
What You Need To Know About Heteronuclear Molecules
- Heteronuclear molecules are molecules that are composed of two atoms of different elements chemically combined like in the case of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Carbon Monoxide (CO).
- Two types of bonding can occur in a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, that is, ionic and covalent.
- Examples of heteronuclear diatomic molecules are: Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), Magnesium Oxide (MgO), Potassium Bromide (Kbr), Silicon Oxide (SiO), etc.
- Molecular orbitals for heteronuclear diatomic molecules contain different atomic contributions.
- In heteronuclear diatomic molecules, atomic orbitals only mix when the electronegativity values are similar.
Also Read: Difference Between Compound And Mixture