Universal Serial Bus is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply between computers, peripherals and other computers. With all the different USB standards, plug types, and speeds, it’s easy to get overwhelmed by the number of options. USB-A and USB-C are the two most common forms of USB, and knowing the differences between the two is essential for understanding what all your devices and peripherals can do.
What is USB-A?
USB-A, also known simply as USB Type-A, is a traditional connector standard that has been in use for many years. It was introduced as part of the Universal Serial Bus (USB) specification in the mid-1990s and has since been the standard for connecting peripherals like keyboards, mice, external hard drives, and printers to computers and other devices.
While USB-A has been largely replaced by newer connector standards like USB-C, many older devices still use USB-A ports.
USB-A connectors are characterized by their rectangular shape with one end being slightly wider than the other. The asymmetrical design means that these connectors have a specific orientation for insertion.
They were originally designed primarily for data transfer and charging purposes. They’ve been used in countless devices, including computers, printers, external hard drives, and smartphones, for transferring files and charging batteries.
The connectors have been used in various USB versions, including USB 1.0, USB 2.0, and USB 3.0 (also known as USB 3.1 Gen 1). Each subsequent version introduced improvements in data transfer speeds and power delivery capabilities.
USB-A connectors are found on a variety of cables, including USB-A to USB-B (used for connecting printers and older external drives), USB-A to micro-USB (commonly used with smartphones and other small devices), and USB-A to USB-A (for connecting devices directly).
What is USB-C?
USB-C, officially known as USB Type-C, is a modern and versatile connector standard for electronic devices. It was first introduced in 2014 and is now common everywhere on laptops, smartphones, tablets, accessories etc. USB-C stands out due to its reversible design, fast data transfer speeds, high power delivery capabilities and multifunctional nature.
USB-C reversible design feature means that you can plug it in either way without worrying about orientation. Also, USB-C supports the USB Power Delivery (USB PD) specification, which allows devices to negotiate and deliver higher levels of power. This means that USB-C can charge devices with varying power requirements, from smartphones to laptops.
USB-C is designed to handle various functions beyond traditional data transfer and charging. It can support:
- Data Transfer: USB-C can support high data transfer speeds, especially when paired with USB 3.1 or Thunderbolt 3 technology. This makes it ideal for transferring large files quickly.
- Charging: USB-C supports higher power delivery, enabling faster charging for devices. It’s not only used for smartphones but can also charge laptops and even power peripherals.
- Video Output: USB-C ports can transmit video signals, supporting displays with resolutions up to 4K or even higher. This allows devices to connect to external monitors without the need for additional adapters.
- Audio Transmission: Some devices use USB-C to transmit audio signals, reducing the need for separate audio jacks.
USB-C cables come in various configurations, including USB-C to USB-C, USB-C to USB-A, USB-C to HDMI etc. And due to its multifunctional nature, USB-C can serve as a single port for data transfer, charging, video output, and audio transmission.
While USB-C is becoming more prevalent, it’s worth noting that not all USB-C ports support the same features. The capabilities of a USB-C port depend on the device’s implementation and the supported standards.
USB-A vs USB-C: Key Differences
|Basis of Comparison||USB-A||USB-C|
|Physical Design||Rectangular shape with one end wider than the other.||Oval-shaped and symmetrical, allowing reversible insertion.|
|Reversibility||Insertion is not reversible; requires correct orientation.||Reversible design allows for easy insertion without worrying about orientation.|
|Size||Bulkier and larger in size.||Smaller and more compact, suitable for slim devices.|
|Compatibility||Commonly found in older devices and computers.||Increasingly adopted in modern devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, and accessories.|
|Transfer Speeds||Transfer speeds vary based on the USB version (e.g., USB 2.0, USB 3.0).||Supports faster data transfer speeds, especially with USB 3.1 or Thunderbolt 3 technology.|
|Power Delivery||Limited power delivery capacity, mostly used for charging smaller devices.||Supports higher power delivery, capable of charging laptops and other high-power devices.|
|Functionality||Mainly used for data transfer and charging purposes.||Offers versatile functionality including data transfer, charging, video output, and audio transmission.|
|Cable Variety||Commonly paired with USB-A to USB-B or USB-A to micro-USB cables.||Available in various cable types, such as USB-C to USB-C, USB-C to USB-A, and more.|
|Adoption in Devices||Older devices predominantly feature USB-A ports.||Increasingly featured in modern devices due to its advantages and versatility.|
|Universal Standard||Not a universal standard due to varying versions and limitations.||Aiming to become a universal connector standard, offering compatibility across a wide range of devices.|
|Audio and Video Transmission||Limited support for audio and video transmission.||Supports audio, video, and even DisplayPort or HDMI signals, making it useful for connecting to displays and external monitors.|
|Port Design||Single-purpose ports (either data or charging).||Multi-purpose port design can handle various functions, reducing the number of ports needed on devices.|
- USB-A: It is a rectangular connector with one side being slightly wider than the other. It has been the standard USB connector for many years.
- USB-C: It is a small, oval-shaped connector with a reversible design, meaning you can plug it in either way, eliminating the frustration of trying to insert it the right way.
- USB-A: It has a single orientation, so you need to make sure you insert it correctly.
- USB-C: It is reversible, allowing for easy and convenient insertion regardless of its orientation.
- USB-A: Generally larger and bulkier.
- USB-C: Smaller and more compact, making it suitable for slim devices.
- USB-A: It is widely used in older devices and computers.
- USB-C: Becoming the new standard and is found in many modern laptops, smartphones, tablets, and other devices.
- USB-A: Depending on the version (USB 2.0, USB 3.0, etc.), it offers varying data transfer speeds.
- USB-C: Supports faster data transfer speeds, especially when paired with USB 3.1 or Thunderbolt 3 technology.
- USB-A: Limited power delivery capability, primarily used for charging small devices like smartphones.
- USB-C: Supports higher power delivery, enabling it to charge larger devices like laptops and even power displays.
- USB-A: Primarily used for data transfer and charging.
- USB-C: Offers a more versatile connection, supporting data transfer, charging, video output, and even audio transmission in some cases.
- USB-A: Typically used with USB-A to USB-B or USB-A to micro-USB cables.
- USB-C: Comes in various cable types, including USB-C to USB-C, USB-C to USB-A, and more.
Adoption in Devices
- USB-A: Older devices use this connector, but it’s becoming less common in new devices.
- USB-C: Increasingly adopted by modern devices due to its versatility and improved features.
- USB-A: Not a universal standard due to its limitations and various versions.
- USB-C: Aimed to become a universal standard connector, unifying various devices under a single port type.