8 Difference Between Somatic And Autonomic Nervous Systems

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 Somatic Nervous System (SONS)

The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. The somatic nervous consists of afferent nerves or sensory nerves and efferent nerves or motor nerves. Afferent nerves are responsible for relaying sensation from the body to the central nervous system whereas the efferent nerves are responsible for sending out commands from the central nervous system to the body, stimulating muscle contraction. Efferent nerves include all the non-sensory neurons connected with skeletal muscles and skin.

What You Need To Know About Somatic Nervous System

  1. Somatic nervous system is involved with the movements of skeletal muscles intentionally.
  2. Somatic nervous system comprises of two parts, which include spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Cranial nerve filaments convey information out and into the brain stem. Cranial muscles are found in the mouth, ear, shoulder, eye, neck and tongue. Spinal nerves on the other hand, convey sensory information into and motor information out of the spinal cord.
  3. Somatic nervous system controls less muscular action.
  4. To convey information, somatic nervous system requires only one efferent neuron.
  5. Somatic nervous system acts dependably on skeletal muscles.
  6. In vertebrates, somatic nervous system includes excitatory neurotransmitters.
  7. Functionality of somatic nervous system is not that complex.
  8. Somatic nervous system also referred to as the voluntary nervous system, stimulates the action of voluntary muscles.

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) also referred to as the vegetative nervous system, is a type of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands and thus having an influence on internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a kind of control system that largely regulates body functions such as sexual arousal, papillary response, heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate and urination.

The autonomic nervous system can be classified further into three categories, which include:

  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • The enteric nervous system

What You Need to Know About Autonomic Nervous Systems

  1. Autonomic nervous system deals with the controls the most crucial movement of muscles to support the life of a creature.
  2. The autonomous nervous system is classified into two, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The parasympathetic neuron begins at the cranial nerves and sacral (S2-S4) spinal cord whereas the sympathetic neurons arises out of the spinal string in thoracic and lumbar ranges, ending around L2-3).
  3. Autonomic nervous system controls more muscular actions.
  4. To convey information, autonomic nervous system requires two efferent neurons as well as ganglia.
  5. Autonomic nervous system follows up on smooth muscles, cardiovascular muscles and different glands.
  6. In vertebrates, autonomic nervous system has excitatory as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters.
  7. Functionality of autonomic nervous system is more complex than that of somatic nervous system.
  8. Autonomic nervous system also referred to as involuntary or visceral nervous system because they regulate the involuntary muscles of the body like glands etc.

Also Read: Difference Between Sympathetic Nervous System And Parasympathetic Nervous System

Difference Between Somatic Nervous Systems And Autonomic Nervous Systems In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Function Somatic nervous system is involved with the movements of skeletal muscles intentionally.   Autonomic nervous system deals with the controls the most crucial movement of muscles to support the life of a creature.  
Classification Somatic nervous system comprises of two parts, which include spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Cranial nerve filaments convey information out and into the brain stem. Cranial muscles are found in the mouth, ear, shoulder, eye, neck and tongue. Spinal nerves on the other hand, convey sensory information into and motor information out of the spinal cord.   The autonomous nervous system is classified into two, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The parasympathetic neuron begins at the cranial nerves and sacral (S2-S4) spinal cord whereas the sympathetic neurons arises out of the spinal string in thoracic and lumbar ranges, ending around L2-3).  
Effect on Muscular Muscles Somatic nervous system controls less muscular action. Autonomic nervous system controls more muscular actions.  
Efferent Neuron To convey information, somatic nervous system requires only one efferent neuron.   To convey information, autonomic nervous system requires two efferent neurons as well as ganglia.  
Action Somatic nervous system acts dependably on skeletal muscles.   Autonomic nervous system follows up on smooth muscles, cardiovascular muscles and different glands.  
Neurotransmitters In vertebrates, somatic nervous system includes excitatory neurotransmitters.   In vertebrates, autonomic nervous system has excitatory as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters.  
Function Complexity Functionality of somatic nervous system is not that complex.   Functionality of autonomic nervous system is more complex than that of somatic nervous system.  
Alternative Name Somatic nervous system also referred to as the voluntary nervous system, stimulates the action of voluntary muscles.   Autonomic nervous system also referred to as involuntary or visceral nervous system because they regulate the involuntary muscles of the body like glands etc.  

Also Read: Difference Between Myelinated Neurons And Unmyelinate Neurons