What Is Mitosis?
Mitosis is a cell division process whereby each parent cell divides into 2 daughter cells. The number of chromosomes in the mother cell is identical to each of the resulting daughter cell. In the context of the cell cycle, mitosis is the part of the division process in which the DNA of the cell’s nucleus is split into equal sets of chromosomes.
Mitosis occurs in both plant and animal cells. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. During mitosis, chromosomes, which have already duplicated, condense and attach to spindle fibres that pull one set of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. The result is two genetically identical nuclei.
Plant Cell Mitosis
Plant mitosis is a part of plant cell division where the replicated chromosomes are separated into two, daughter nuclei. It occurs in four stages, same as animal mitosis. These stages are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. In plants, mitosis occurs only in the meristem tissues. They are located at the tips of roots, shoots and in the stem, between the xylem and phloem.
What You Need To Know About Plant Cell Mitosis
- Plant mitosis is generally controlled by hormone cytokine/cytokinin.
- A major part of spindle persists as phragmoplast at the time of division.
- It occurs generally in the region of a meristem.
- The cell does not change shape prior to division.
- Mitotic apparatus is without asters. Spindle is anastral.
- The equatorial region of the spindle forms phragmoplast.
- Microfilaments do not have much role in plant mitosis.
- A mid body is absent.
- A solid middle lamella develops in between the two daughter cells for permanent adhesion.
- Centrioles are absent.
- Cell plate grows centripetally.
- Plant cells do not change shape before cell division.
Animal Cell Mitosis
Most animal cells undergo a shape change, referred to as mitotic cell rounding, to adopt a near spherical morphology at the start of mitosis. Most human cells are produced by mitotic cell division with exception of gametes (sperm and egg cells) which are produced by meiosis.
What You Need To Know About Animal Cell Mitosis
- Animal mitosis is controlled by a number of mitogens like lymphokines, epidermal growth factor, platelets derived growth factor etc, a specific cell division hormone is not known.
- Spindle degenerates at the time of Cytokinesis.
- It occurs in bone marrow and many epithelia.
- The cell often becomes spherical prior to division.
- Mitotic apparatus contain asters. Spindle is amphiastral.
- The equatorial region of the spindle forms mid body.
- Microfilaments bring about cleavage.
- A mid body may be formed during animal cell mitosis.
- Cleavage creates an intercellular space between the daughter cells.
- The spindle poles possess centriole pairs.
- Cleavage proceeds centripetally.
- Animal cell becomes rounded before cell division.
Difference Between Mitosis In Animals And Plant Cells In Tabular Form
|BASIS OF COMPARISON||PLANT CELL MITOSIS||ANIMAL CELL MITOSIS|
|Process Control||Plant mitosis is generally controlled by hormone cytokine/cytokinin.||Animal mitosis is controlled by a number of mitogens like lymphokines, epidermal growth factor, platelets derived growth factor etc, a specific cell division hormone is not known.|
|Spindle Fibre||A major part of spindle persists as phragmoplast at the time of division.||Spindle degenerates at the time of Cytokinesis.|
|Occurrence||It occurs generally in the region of a meristem.||It occurs in bone marrow and many epithelia.|
|Shape Of Cell Prior Division||The cell does not change shape prior to division.||The cell often becomes spherical prior to division.|
|Mitotic Apparatus||Mitotic apparatus is without asters. Spindle is anastral.||Mitotic apparatus contain asters. Spindle is amphiastral.|
|Equatorial Region Of Spindle||The equatorial region of the spindle forms phragmoplast.||The equatorial region of the spindle forms mid body.|
|Microfilaments||Microfilaments do not have much role in plant mitosis.||Microfilaments bring about cleavage.|
|Mid Body||A mid body is absent.||A mid body may be formed during animal cell mitosis.|
|Center Of Daughter Cells||A solid middle lamella develops in between the two daughter cells for permanent adhesion.||Cleavage creates an intercellular space between the daughter cells.|
|Centrioles||Centrioles are absent.||The spindle poles possess centriole pairs.|
|Cell Plate||Cell plate grows centripetally.||Cleavage proceeds centripetally.|
|Before Cell Division||Plant cells do not change shape before cell division.||Animal cell becomes rounded before cell division.|
Similarities Between Plant Cell And Animal Cell Mitosis
- During prophase, chromosomes condense.
- In prometaphase, the nuclear envelop breaks down, the chromosomes move towards the metaphase plate, and the spindle grabs the chromosomes.
- In metaphase, the chromosomes align at the equator.
- In anaphase, the chromosomes move towards opposite poles.
- In telophase, the nuclear envelope appears again, chromosomes de-condense and the spindle breaks down.