21 Difference Between Meristematic Tissues And Permanent Tissues In Plants

SHARE

Plants are typically made up of roots, stems and leaves. Plant tissues can be broadly categorized into dividing meristematic tissue or non-dividing permanent tissue.

What Are Meristematic Tissues?

Meristematic tissue or meristem are tissues that have ability to enlarge, stretch and differentiate into other types of cells as they mature. The cells of this tissue are generally young and immature with the power of continuous division.  Meristematic cells are either differentiated or incompletely differentiated, and they give rise to various organs of a plant and are responsible for growth.

Meristematic cells can be oval, rounded or polygonal in shape. They have a large nucleus with no vacuoles. Intercellular space between cells is absent. The cells are also small in size but have a high capacity of cell division. Meristems can be divided into three types depending on the occurrence of the meristematic tissue on the plant body, that is:

  • Apical Meristems (contain meristematic tissue located at the tips of the stems and roots, which enable a plant to extend in length).
  • Intercalary Meristems (occur only in monocot, at the base of leaf blades and at nodes. This enables the monocot leaf to increase in length from the leaf base for example; it allows lawn grass leaves to elongate even after repeated mowing).
  • Lateral Meristems (facilitate growth in thickness or girth in maturing plant).

Characteristic Of Meristematic Tissues

  1. Cells are usually composed of primary pit fields.
  2. Cells are small and isodiametric in shape with large lumen.
  3. All cells in meristematic tissues are living.
  4. All cells in the meristematic tissue have a dense cytoplasm.
  5. The meristematic cells have cellulose cell wall, with no secondary cell wall thickening.
  6. There are no intercellular spaces in the meristematic tissue.
  7. The meristematic tissue is composed of undifferentiated cells.
  8. Meristematic tissue is a simple tissue composed of only one type of cells.
  9. Meristematic tissues are only found in certain parts of the plant body that is root, stem and branches).
  10. Example of meristematic tissue include:  Root apex and Shoot apex.
  11. The meristematic tissue plays an important role in the growth and formation of new organs throughout the life of the plants.
  12. The metabolism is present in meristematic tissues and it occurs at high rates.
  13. No inclusions or egastic substances are present in meristematic tissues.
  14. All cells in the meristematic tissue have a prominent nucleus.
  15. Cells of meristematic tissues have a large lumen.
  16. There are no vacuoles in the cells of meristematic tissues.
  17. The undifferentiated cells in the meristematic tissue have ability to divide rapidly.
  18. Meristematic tissue cells do not store food reserves.
  19. In meristematic tissue cells, both respiratory and biosynthetic activities are very high.
  20. Lignified secondary cell wall is completely absent in meristematic tissue cells.
  21. The apical meristem, intercalary meristem, and lateral meristem are the types of meristematic tissues.

Also Read: Difference Parenchyma, Collenchyma And Sclerenchyma Cells

What Are Permanent Tissues?

Permanent tissue is a plant tissue that has completed its growth and differentiation and is usually incapable of meristematic activity (Permanent tissue consist of cells which have lost the ability of division temporarily or permanently). Cells of permanent tissues are matured and assume a definite shape, size and function.

On the basis of its constituents, permanent tissue can be classified into three types:

  • Simple permanent tissue (composed of same type of cell).
  • Complex permanent tissue (composed of different type of cells performing same function).
  • Secretory or special tissues

Characteristic Of Permanent Tissues

  1. Cells are usually composed of many advanced types of pits.
  2. The cells of permanent tissues are large and of different shapes according to the type of tissue.
  3. Cells of permanent tissues are both dead and living. Parenchyma and collenchymas are living and while sclerenchyma are non-living.
  4. The dead cells (schlerenchyma) in the permanent tissue do not have a cytoplasm.
  5. The cell wall of the permanent tissue can be thin or thick, lignified or with cellulose. Some cells may undergo secondary cell wall thickening.
  6. The permanent tissues can be loosely packed (parenchymas) or compactly packed (sclerenchyma).
  7. The cells of the permanent tissue can both differentiated and undifferentiated.
  8. Permanent tissues may be simple tissues or complex tissue containing more than one type of cells (example phloem and xylem).
  9. Permanent tissues are found throughout the plant body.
  10. Examples of permanent tissues include: xylem, phloem and mesophyll.
  11. Primary function of the permanent tissues may vary depending with the tissue types. It may be conduction, provide mechanical support or carryout photosynthesis.
  12. Metabolism in permanent tissue is either absent or present, and if present it is usually occur at low rates.
  13. There are inclusions and ergastic substances in these tissues.
  14.   The cells in the permanent tissues are usually dead or alive and may have a nucleus or not.
  15. The cells in permanent tissues usually have a wide or narrow lumen.
  16. Cells of permanent tissues may have vacuoles or not.
  17. In the permanent tissues, the differentiated cells do not have the ability to divide.
  18. The permanent tissue cells can reserve food in the form of starch.
  19. In permanent tissue cells, both respiratory and biosynthetic activities are very low.
  20. Lignified secondary cell wall is sometime present in permanent tissue cells such as in schlerenchyma.
  21. Parenchyma, collenchymas, sclerenchyma, phloem, and secretory tissues are types of permanent tissue.

Also Read: Difference Between Simple Permanent Tissue And Complex Permanent Tissue

Difference Between Permanent Tissues And Meristematic Tissues In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON PERMANENT TISSUES MERISTEMATIC TISSUES
Pits Cells are usually composed of many advanced types of pits.   Cells are usually composed of primary pit fields.  
Cell Size And Shape The cells of permanent tissues are large and of different shapes according to the type of tissue.   Cells are small and isodiametric in shape with large lumen.  
Living And Non-Living Cells Cells of permanent tissues are both dead and living. Parenchyma and collenchymas are living and while sclerenchyma are non-living.     All cells in meristematic tissues are living.  
Cytoplasm The dead cells (schlerenchyma) in the permanent tissue do not have a cytoplasm.     All cells in the meristematic tissue have a dense cytoplasm.  
Cell Wall The cell wall of the permanent tissue can be thin or thick, lignified or with cellulose. Some cells may undergo secondary cell wall thickening.   The meristematic cells have cellulose cell wall, with no secondary cell wall thickening.  
Intercellular Spaces The permanent tissues can be loosely packed (parenchymas) or compactly packed (sclerenchyma).   There are no intercellular spaces in the meristematic tissue.  
Differentiation The cells of the permanent tissue can both differentiated and undifferentiated.   The meristematic tissue is composed of undifferentiated cells.  
Type of Cells Permanent tissues may be simple tissues or complex tissue containing more than one type of cells (example phloem and xylem).   Meristematic tissue is a simple tissue composed of only one type of cells.  
Location Permanent tissues are found throughout the plant body.   Meristematic tissues are only found in certain parts of the plant body that is root, stem and branches).  
Examples Example of meristematic tissue include:  Root apex and Shoot apex.   Example of meristematic tissue include:  Root apex and Shoot apex.  
Function The meristematic tissue plays an important role in the growth and formation of new organs throughout the life of the plants.   The meristematic tissue plays an important role in the growth and formation of new organs throughout the life of the plants.  
Metabolism Metabolism in permanent tissue is either absent or present, and if present it is usually occur at low rates.   The metabolism is present in meristematic tissues and it occurs at high rates.  
Inclusions or Egastic Substances There are inclusions and ergastic substances in these tissues.   No inclusions or egastic substances are present in meristematic tissues.  
Nucleus The cells in the permanent tissues are usually dead or alive and may have a nucleus or not.   All cells in the meristematic tissue have a prominent nucleus.  
Lumen The cells in permanent tissues usually have a wide or narrow lumen.   Cells of meristematic tissues have a large lumen.  
Vacuoles Cells of permanent tissues may have vacuoles or not.   There are no vacuoles in the cells of meristematic tissues.  
Ability to Divide In the permanent tissues, the differentiated cells do not have the ability to divide.   The undifferentiated cells in the meristematic tissue have ability to divide rapidly.  
Food Reserves The permanent tissue cells can reserve food in the form of starch.   Meristematic tissue cells do not store food reserves.  
Respiratory And Biosynthetic Activities In permanent tissue cells, both respiratory and biosynthetic activities are very low.   In meristematic tissue cells, both respiratory and biosynthetic activities are very high.  
Lignified Secondary Cell Wall Lignified secondary cell wall is sometime present in permanent tissue cells such as in schlerenchyma.   Lignified secondary cell wall is completely absent in meristematic tissue cells.  
Types Parenchyma, collenchymas, sclerenchyma, phloem, and secretory tissues are types of permanent tissue.   The apical meristem, intercalary meristem, and lateral meristem are the types of meristematic tissues.  

Also Read: Difference Between Phloem And Xylem

Similarities Between Meristematic Tissues And Permanent Tissues

  • Both permanent and meristematic tissues are tissue systems in plants.
  • Both meristematic and permanent tissues are composed of a group of cell performing specific functions.
  • Both meristematic and permanent tissues are homogenous in nature with a single type of cells.