8 Difference Between Kernel And Operating System (OS)

SHARE

What Is Kernel?

The Kernel is the central module of an operating system (OS). It is the part of the operating system that loads first and it remains in the main memory. Typically, every operating system has a kernel. The kernel is responsible for memory management, process and task management and disk management. It also connects the system hardware to the application software.

All requests to other resources go through the kernel. If we want to print, the print instruction is processed through the kernel. Every click on the mouse is processed through the kernel. If a process requires memory to execute it, it will be the responsibility of kernel to allocate the memory.

There are five types of kernel:

  • Monolithic kernels: In this Kernel architecture, the OS and kernel both run in the same memory space.
  • Microkernel: In this kernel architecture, the kernel itself can do most of the job and there is no need of extra GUI.
  • Hybrid Kernels:  This kernel architecture combines both monolithic and microkernel functionality. It moves out drivers but keeps system services inside the kernel.
  • Nano kernels: This kernel architecture offers hardware abstraction but without system services. Larger kernels are designed to offer more features and manage more hardware abstraction.
  • Exo kernels: This kernel architecture offers process protection and resource handling.

What You Need To Know About Kernel

  1. Kernel is the central program of the operating system.
  2. The Kernel performs the lowest level functions of the Operating System like Process management, File Management, Memory management, Device management, Memory management, Device management, Input/output communication.
  3. Types of Kernel include: Hydrid kernel, Exo kernel, Nano-kernel, Monolithic kernel and Micro kernel. The most widely used kernel are monolithic and micro kernel.
  4. The kernel acts as an interface between the user level programs and the hardware.
  5. Kernel plays an important role in memory management, task management, process management and disk management.
  6. The kernel is that program of the operating system which gets loaded into the memory before any other program in the operating system.
  7. All operating system needs kernel to run.
  8. Examples of kernel include QNX, Symbian, L4 Linux which are microkernel kernel and Linux, BSD, Solaris, OS-9, OpenVMS, xts-400, HP-UX which are monolithic kernel.

What Is Operating System (OS)?

An Operating system (OS) is an interface between computer user and computer hardware. An operating system can be described as a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output and controlling devices such as disk drives and printers.

Types of operating systems include:

  • Real-time operating system (RTOS):  This type of OS guarantees certain execution within specified time constraint.
  • Multitasking Operating /Time Sharing OS:  In this type of OS each task is given some time to execute and all tasks are given time so that all processes run seamlessly without any problem.
  • Embedded OS: This type of OS is specialized for use in the computer built into large systems such as ATMs, airplane control, GPS navigation system,, traffic control lights, digital television, points of sale terminals, digital media receivers and smart meters.
  • Multiprocessing OS:  This is a type of OS where two or more operating central processing units (CPUs) control the functions of the computer. The use of multiple processors allows the computer to perform calculations faster, since tasks can be divided up between processors.
  • Distributed OS: Distributed systems use many processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to its users.
  • Network OS:  This type of OS is designed primarily to support Workstation, personal computers that are connected on a local area network (LAN).
  • Mobile OS: This type of operating systems is specially designed to power smartphones, tablets and other electronic devices.

What You Need To Know About Operating System (OS)

  1. Operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources.
  2. Operating System performs surplus functions like providing security to the data and files in the system, providing access controls to user and hence maintaining privacy.
  3. Types of operating system include single and multiuser Operating system, multiprocessor Operating System, Real-time operating system and Distributed operating system.
  4. Operating System acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.
  5. Operating system is responsible for protection and security of the computer system.
  6. Operating system is a system software which is the first one to get loaded into the main memory as soon as the system is turned on.
  7. All systems require operating system to run.
  8. Examples of operating system are Windows, Chrome OS, Apple’s macOS, Linux, Black Bery Tablet OS etc.

Also Read: Difference Between User Level Thread And Kernel Level Thread

Difference Between Kernel And Operating System (OS) In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON KERNEL OPERATING SYSTEM  
Description Kernel is the central program of the operating system.   Operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources.  
Function The Kernel performs the lowest level functions of the Operating System like Process management, File Management, Memory management, Device management, Memory management, Device management, Input/output communication.   Operating System performs surplus functions like providing security to the data and files in the system, providing access controls to user and hence maintaining privacy.  
Types Hydrid kernel  Exo kernel  Nano-kernel Monolithic kernel  Micro kernel. Single and multiuser Operating system, Multiprocessor Operating System Real-time operating system Distributed operating system Batch Operating System
Main Function The kernel acts as an interface between the user level programs and the hardware.   Operating System acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.    
Role Kernel plays an important role in memory management, task management, process management and disk management.   Operating system is responsible for protection and security of the computer system.  
Operation The kernel is that program of the operating system which gets loaded into the memory before any other program in the operating system.   Operating system is a system software which is the first one to get loaded into the main memory as soon as the system is turned on.  
Importance All operating system needs kernel to run.   All systems require operating system to run.  
Examples QNX, Symbian L4 Linux kernel and Linux BSD Solaris OS-9  OpenVMS xts-400 HP-UX Windows Chrome OS  Apple’s macOS, Linux, Black Bery Tablet OS etc.  

Also Read: Difference Between Paging And Segmentation In OS