7 Difference Between Job Description And Job Specification

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Job description and Job specification are two important components of job analysis information. The two describe a job fully and guide both employer and employee on how to go about the whole process of recruitment and hiring. Both data sets are typically relevant in matching between job and talent, evaluate performance and analyze training needs and measuring the worth of a particular job.

What Is a Job Description?

A Job description is a summary statement of what a candidate can do after being recruited or hired. It generally lists out the job title, location, job summary, working hours, reporting authority, salary range, working environment, duties to be performed on the job etc. in other words, a job description details what is to be done, how it is to be done in regard to the organization’s objectives. It is a standard of function where it defines the appropriate and authorized contents of a job.

What You Need Know About Job Description

  • The job description is a summary of what a candidate can do after being recruited or hired.
  • Job description generally lists out the job title, location, job summary, working hours, reporting authority, salary range, working environment, duties to be performed on the job etc.
  • The job description is an outcome of the Job Analysis.
  • Job description helps the management in evaluation of the job performance and in defining the training needs of an employee.
  • Job description measures tasks and responsibilities attached to the job.
  • Job description is useful in analysis of employees’ productivity in regard to the objectives of the organization. Management can schedule roles and duties without overlapping.
  • Description of work environment and roles is the main objective of a Job description.

What Is a Job Specification?

Job specification also referred to as a employee specification is a statement showing what a prospective candidate should possess to get recruited or hired. Job specifications translate the job description into terms of the human qualifications which are required for the successful performance of the job. Job specification serve as a guide in hiring, thus, it is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities required for the proper performance of the job.  

 It generally lists educational qualifications, specific qualities, and level of experience, physical, emotional, technical and communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in a job and other unusual sensory demands. It also includes general health, mental health, intelligence, aptitude, memory, judgment, leadership skills, emotional ability, adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, manners and creativity. A job specification helps the recruiting team of an organization to understand the level of qualifications, qualities and set of characteristics for eligibility of a candidate to a certain job.

The qualities as assessed and recorded on job specification document involve an element of subjectivity. The proper assessment of these qualities depends upon the value judgments of a number of people such as Job analysts, job holder and his supervisor.

What You Need To Know About Job Specification

  • Job specification is a statement showing what a prospective candidate should possess to get recruited or hired.
  • Job specification lists out the qualifications, experience, training, skills, emotional attributes, mental capabilities of an individual to perform the Job.
  • Job specification is as a result of Job description.
  • Job specification helps candidates applying for the job to analyze whether they are eligible for a particular job or not.
  • Job specification measures capabilities and eligibility to perform the job.
  • Job specification statement is useful to management when it comes to decisions regarding promotion, bonus, internal transfers and salary increase.
  • Description of skills and experience is the main objective of a job specification.

Difference Between Job Description And Job Specification In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON JOB DESCRIPTION JOB SPECIFICATION
Description The job description is a summary of what a candidate can do after being recruited or hired.   Job specification is a statement showing what a prospective candidate should possess to get recruited or hired.  
Content Job description generally lists out the job title, location, job summary, working hours, reporting authority, salary range, working environment, duties to be performed on the job etc.   Job specification lists out the qualifications, experience, training, skills, emotional attributes, mental capabilities of an individual to perform the Job.  
Nature The job description is an outcome of the Job Analysis.   Job specification is as a result of Job description.  
Use Job description helps the management in evaluation of the job performance and in defining the training needs of an employee.   Job specification helps candidates applying for the job to analyze whether they are eligible for a particular job or not.  
Purpose Job description measures tasks and responsibilities attached to the job.   Job specification measures capabilities and eligibility to perform the job.  
Application Job description is useful in analysis of employees’ productivity in regard to the objectives of the organization.   Job specification statement is useful to management when it comes to decisions regarding promotion, bonus, internal transfers and salary increase.  
Objective Description of work environment is the main objective of a Job description.   Description of skills and experience is the main objective of a job specification.