12 Difference Between Grafting And Layering

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What Is Grafting?

Grafting is the technique of connecting two pieces of living plant tissue together in such a way that they will unite and subsequently grow and develop as one composite plant. In grafting, two plant sections, the stock and scion are very crucial. Stock/rootstock is the rooted plant upon which a branch of a desired variety of the plant is grafted. The branch which is being grafted is referred to as ‘’scion’’.  The scion will become the new trunk and branches of the tree and the rootstock will become the root system. The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant.

The cambium is an important component in a successful graft as cambium layers from both the scion and the rootstock must be matched for a successful graft. The cambium is an active layer of cells located between the bark and woody portion of a stem or branch.

Grafting is an ancient, vegetative, asexual plant propagation technique. Most grafting is done in late winter or early spring before new growth begins. Grafting is generally in fruit trees that are unable to be propagated using air-layering or cuttings such as mangos.

In modern horticulture, grafting is used for a wide range of purposes, which include:

  • To repair injured trees
  • To produce dwarf trees and shrubs
  • To strengthen plants’ resistance to certain diseases
  • To retain varietal characteristics
  • To adapt varieties to adverse soil or climatic conditions
  • To ensure pollination
  • To produce multi-fruited or multi-flowered plants
  • To propagate certain species such as hybrid roses that can be propagated in no other way. 

Grafting techniques can be divided into two basic types, which are largely determined by the size of the under-stock. They include:

  • Veneer Grafting, which is also referred to as a inlay grafting technique. Currently, it is the most popular way to graft conifers especially those having a compact or dwarf form.
  • Cleft graft, which is a grafting technique which allows the union of a rootstock limb that, is much larger in size than the scion piece. Cleft grafting technique is done in late winter when both the rootstock and the scion are in a dormant condition.

Other Types Of Grafting

  • Bud-grafting
  • Cleft-grafting
  • Tongue grafting
  • Approach grafting

What You Need To Know About Grafting

  1. Grafting is a method of inserting a part of one plant into another plant in such a way that the two will unite and continue their growth.
  2. In grafting, the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another.
  3. Grafting is used to obtain a plant with desirable characters.
  4. Grafting helps to pressure and perpetuate varieties that cannot reproduce by vegetative method.
  5. Two plant sections, the stock and scion are joined in such a way that two stems join and grow as a single plant. Stock is the rooted plant upon which a branch of a desired variety of the plant is grafted. The branch which is being grafted is referred to as ‘’scion’’.
  6. Grafting is done on a stock plant which has a very strong root system.
  7. Grafting is very useful in propagating improved varieties of various flowers and fruits.
  8. Grafting can be done in four ways, they include: Bud-grafting, Cleft-grafting, Tongue grafting and approach grafting.
  9. Plants like mango, lemon, oranges, Apple are produced by grafting technique.
  10. The plants propagated through grafting are more resistant to diseases, pests and drought.
  11. Grafting is considered as a highly useful technique of propagation.
  12. With grafting you can get more varieties from a single plant.

What Is Layering?

Layering is a means of plant propagation in which a portion of an above-ground stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments.

Applications of Layering

  • Propagation of bonsai
  • It is also used as a technique for both creating new roots and improving existing roots
  • Utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants

Types Of Layering

There are two main types of layering:

  • Ground/simple layering- This is type of layering whereby the original plants are set in the ground with the stem nearly horizontal, which forces side buds to grow upward. At the end of the growing season, the side branches will have rooted and can be separated while the plant is dormant.
  • Air layering- Air layering is done by peeling the bark from the middle of a branch and covering this exposed wood with moss and plastic wrap. Roots will form inside the moss and you can cut the rooted tip from the plant. It is useful for plants that are hard to propagate by cuttings or if you want your new plant to have a larger size than could be accomplished by taking cuttings.

Other Types Layering

  • Simple layering
  • Tip layering
  • Serpentine (compound) layering
  • Mounding (stool) layering
  • French layering
  • Drop layering

What You Need To Know About Layering

  1. Layers are Stems that usually form roots while still attached to the parent plants. Now propagating plants in this method is referred to as layering.
  2. Only one plant is required for layering.  There is no fusion between tissues of different plants.
  3. In layering, the plant that is propagated already has desirable characters.
  4. In layering we can propagate the plant varieties which we find desirable.
  5. In layering, first the roots are formed on the stem of a mother plant and only after that the stem is cut off and is planted as a new plant.
  6. Plants grown from layering will fruit earlier than the ones grown from seeds.
  7. Layering is used quite frequently in the propagation of bonsai; It is also used as a technique for both creating new roots and improving existing roots. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.
  8. There are two types of layering: ground/simple layering and air layering.
  9. Plants like rose, jasmine are produced more by layering method.
  10. The plants propagated from layering method do not show more resistance to drought, diseases and pests because immunity continues throughout from one generation to another without change.
  11. Layering is considered as less useful technique of propagation when compared to grafting.
  12. Layering results in one type of offspring.

Difference Between Grafting And Layering In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON GRAFTING LAYERING
Description Grafting is a method of inserting a part of one plant into another plant in such a way that the two will unite and continue their growth.   Layers are Stems that usually form roots while still attached to the parent plants. Now propagating plants in this method is referred to as layering.  
Tissues In grafting, the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another.   Only one plant is required for layering.  There is no fusion between tissues of different plants.  
Desirable Characters   Grafting is used to obtain a plant with desirable characters.   In layering, the plant that is propagated already has desirable characters.  
Importance Grafting helps to pressure and perpetuate varieties that cannot reproduce by vegetative method.   In layering we can propagate the plant varieties which we find desirable.  
Plant Parts Two plant sections, the stock and scion are joined in such a way that two stems join and grow as a single plant. In layering, first the roots are formed on the stem of a mother plant and only after that the stem is cut off and is planted as a new plant.  
Growth Grafting is done on a stock plant which has a very strong root system.   Plants grown from layering will fruit earlier than the ones grown from seeds.  
Application Grafting is very useful in propagating improved varieties of various flowers and fruits.   Layering is used quite frequently in the propagation of bonsai; It is also used as a technique for both creating new roots and improving existing roots. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.  
Types Grafting can be done in four ways, they include: Bud-grafting, Cleft-grafting, Tongue grafting and approach grafting.   There are two types of layering: ground/simple layering and air layering.  
Resistance To Diseases, Pests And Drought The plants propagated through grafting are more resistant to diseases, pests and drought.   The plants propagated from layering method do not show more resistance to drought, diseases and pests because immunity continues throughout from one generation to another without change.
Plants Plants like mango, lemon, oranges, Apple are produced by grafting technique.   Plants like rose, jasmine are produced more by layering method.  
Usefulness Grafting is considered as a highly useful technique of propagation.   Layering is considered as less useful technique of propagation when compared to grafting.  
Variety With grafting you can get more varieties from a single plant.   Layering results in one type of offspring.