12 Difference Between Diabetes mellitus And Diabetes insipidus

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What Is Diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus commonly referred to as Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. This type of diabetes is generally due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.

Insulin is a hormone released from the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose in the bloodstream stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin helps glucose to move from the blood into the cells. Once inside the cells, glucose is converted to energy, which is used immediately or glucose is stored as fat or the starch glycogen until it is needed.

Hyperglycaemia or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. Other common symptoms commonly associated with Diabetes mellitus include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite.

What You Need To Know About Diabetes mellitus

  • Diabetes mellitus commonly referred to as diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.
  • Diabetes mellitus is caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin.
  • It is a pancreatic disorder because insulin is secreted in the pancreas.
  • There is generally a rise in blood glucose level or hyperglycemia.
  • Glucose is excreted along with urine.
  • The urine is of normal concentration and has some odor.
  • There is increase in volume of urine due to osmotic effect of glucose.
  • There is high level of blood cholesterol.
  • Polyphagia and hunger is excessive.
  • Ketone bodies occur in blood and urine.
  • Its main symptoms are excessive urine production, excessive thirst and excessive eating.
  • The types of diabetes mellitus include: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and Gestational diabetes.

What Is Diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body.

Diabetes insipidus results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water. Normally, the antidiuretic hormone controls the kidneys’ output of urine. It is secreted by the hypothalamus (a small gland located at the base of the brain) and stored in the pituitary gland and then released into the bloodstream. ADH is secreted to decrease the amount of urine output so that dehydration does not occur. Diabetes insipidus, however, causes excessive production of very diluted urine and excessive thirst. 

Causes of Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus can be caused by several conditions, including the following:

  • Malfunctioning hypothalamus
  • Damage to hypothalamus or pituitary gland during surgery
  • Brain injury
  • Tumor
  • Tuberculosis
  • Blockage in the arteries leading to the brain
  • Encephalitis
  • Meningitis
  • Sarcoidosis (a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body)

What You Need To Know About Diabetes insipidus

  • Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid-dilute and odorless.
  • Diabetes insipidus involves a problem with the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or kidney’s response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).
  • It is a hypothalamic disorder because ADH is secreted in the hypothalamus.
  • There is generally no rise in blood sugar level.
  • Glucose is not excreted.
  • The urine is very dilute and odorless.
  • The volume of urine increase due to decreased absorption of water in renal tubules.
  • There is no rise in Blood cholesterol level.
  • Hunger and polyphagia is normal.
  • Formation of Ketone bodies does not occur.
  • Its main symptoms are excretion of large amounts of urine, thirst and dehydration.
  • The types of diabetes insipidus include: Central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic and gestational.

Also Read: Difference Between Anti-diuretic Hormone And Aldosterone Hormone

Difference Between Diabetes mellitus And Diabetes insipidus In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON Diabetes mellitus Diabetes insipidus
Description Diabetes mellitus commonly referred to as diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.   Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid-dilute and odorless.  
Cause Diabetes mellitus is caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin.   Diabetes insipidus involves a problem with the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or kidney’s response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).  
Nature It is a pancreatic disorder because insulin is secreted in the pancreas.   It is a hypothalamic disorder because ADH is secreted in the hypothalamus.  
Blood Sugar Level There is generally a rise in blood glucose level or hyperglycemia.   There is generally no rise in blood sugar level.  
Glucose Excretion With Urine Glucose is excreted along with urine.   Glucose is not excreted.  
Urine Concentration The urine is of normal concentration and has some odor.   The urine is very dilute and odorless.  
Urine Volume There is increase in volume of urine due to osmotic effect of glucose.   The volume of urine increase due to decreased absorption of water in renal tubules.  
Blood Cholesterol There is high level of blood cholesterol.   There is no rise in Blood cholesterol level.  
Polyphagia & Hunger Polyphagia and hunger is excessive.   Hunger and polyphagia is normal.  
Formation Of Ketone Bodies Ketone bodies occur in blood and urine.   Formation of Ketone bodies does not occur.  
Main Symptoms Its main symptoms are excessive urine production, excessive thirst and excessive eating.   Its main symptoms are excretion of large amounts of urine, thirst and dehydration.  
Types Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and Gestational diabetes.   Central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic and gestational.