10 Difference Between Cladogram And Phylogenetic Tree

SHARE

What Is Cladogram?

A Cladogram is a diagram used in cladiastics, it shows hypothetical relationships between groups of organisms. Though a Cladogram resembles a tree with branches off a main trunk, it is however not an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants nor does it show how much they have changed; nevertheless, many evolutionary trees can be inferred from a single Cladogram. 

cladogram

What You Need To Know About Cladogram

  1. A Cladogram is a diagram used in cladiastics, it shows hypothetical relationships between groups of organisms.
  2. A Cladogram consists of the organisms being studied, lines and nodes where those lines cross. The lines represent evolutionary time or a series of organisms that lead to the population it connects to. Nodes represent common ancestor between species.
  3. Cladograms are concerned with the way organisms are related to common ancestors through shared characteristics.
  4. Cladogram is based on the morphological characters of the organisms.
  5. Cladogram is drawn with equal-length. The length of the branch does not represent an evolutionary distance.
  6. Cladogram represents a hypothetical evolutionary history of organisms.
  7. The shape of the Cladogram shows the relatedness among a group of organisms.
  8. Originally, Cladograms were organized based on morphological features but modern cladograms are more often based on genetic and molecular data.  
  9. Cladograms have lines that branch off other lines. These branching off points represent a hypothetical ancestor (not an actual entity) which can be inferred to exhibit the traits shared among the terminal taxa above it.

What Phylogenetic Tree?

A Phylogenetic tree also referred to as evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or ‘’tree’’ showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities-their phylogeny-based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.  All life on Earth is part of a single Phylogenetic tree, indicating common ancestry. Phylogenies are useful for organizing knowledge of biological biodiversity, for structuring classifications and for providing insights into events that occurred during evolution.

Parts Of A Phylogenetic Tree

What You Need To Known About Phylogenetic Tree

  1. A Phylogenetic tree is a diagram used to depict evolutionary relationships among organisms or group of organisms. Phylogenetic trees are hypotheses not definitive facts.
  2. In a Phylogenetic tree, the species or groups of interest are found at the tips of lines referred to as branches. The tips of the tree represent groups of descendants’ species and the nodes on the tree represent the common ancestors of those descendants.
  3. Phylogenetic trees compare organisms over evolutionary time and the amount of change that has occurred over time to figure out the relationships.
  4. Phylogenetic trees are based on morphological characters and genetic relationship of the organism.
  5. Branch length of a Phylogenetic tree indicates the evolutionary distance.
  6. To some extend Phylogenetic tree indicates the true evolutionary history of organisms.
  7. The distance of the branch depends on the amount of inferred evolutionary change.
  8. Phylogenetic trees can be drawn in various equivalent styles. Rotating a tree about its branch points does not change the information it carries.
  9. In Phylogenetic trees, two species are more related if they have a more recent ancestor and less related if they have a less recent common ancestor.

Also Read: Difference Between Homologous And Analogous Structures

Difference Between Cladogram And Phylogenetic Tree In Tabular Form

BASIS OF COMPARISON CLADOGRAM PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Description A Cladogram is a diagram used in cladiastics, it shows hypothetical relationships between groups of organisms.   A Phylogenetic tree is a diagram used to depict evolutionary relationships among organisms or group of organisms.
Components A Cladogram consists of the organisms being studied, lines and nodes where those lines cross. In a Phylogenetic tree, the species or groups of interest are found at the tips of lines referred to as branches.  
Function Cladograms are concerned with the way organisms are related to common ancestors through shared characteristics.   Phylogenetic trees compare organisms over evolutionary time and the amount of change that has occurred over time to figure out the relationships.  
Basis Cladogram is based on the morphological characters of the organisms.   Phylogenetic trees are based on morphological characters and genetic relationship of the organism.  
Length Cladogram is drawn with equal-length. The length of the branch does not represent an evolutionary distance.   Branch length of a Phylogenetic tree indicates the evolutionary distance.  
Represents Cladogram represents a hypothetical evolutionary history of organisms.   To some extend Phylogenetic tree indicates the true evolutionary history of organisms.  
Nature The shape of the Cladogram shows the relatedness among a group of organisms.   The distance of the branch depends on the amount of inferred evolutionary change.  
Organization Originally, Cladograms were organized based on morphological features but modern cladograms are more often based on genetic and molecular data.    Phylogenetic trees can be drawn in various equivalent styles. Rotating a tree about its branch points does not change the information it carries.  
Relation Among Species Cladograms have lines that branch off other lines. These branching off points represent a hypothetical ancestor (not an actual entity) which can be inferred to exhibit the traits shared among the terminal taxa above it.   In Phylogenetic trees, two species are more related if they have a more recent ancestor and less related if they have a less recent common ancestor.  

Similarity

  • Both Cladogram and Phylogenetic trees are drawn using lines to show relationships.
  • They are both used in the fields of biology such as bioinformatics, systematic and Phylogenetics.
  • They are both use morphological characters to make inferences.