8 Difference Between Centrosome And Centriole

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The structures that enable the formation of spindle fibers are known as centrioles and the organelle that organizes their formation is referred to as centrosome. During mitosis, centrosomes are replicated by duplicating each Centriole. The four centrioles then divide into two centrosomes, each with one Centriole at a right angle to the second Centriole.

What Is Centrosome?

The centrosome is a small cellular organelle that functions as the main microtubule-organizing center during interphase stage of mitosis. Centrosome is made up of centrioles along with a dense shapeless mass of protein referred to as the pericentriolar that surrounds it. These proteins allow the centrosomes to start and stop the formation of microtubule proteins.

The centrosome is an important part of how the cell organizes the process of cell division. Before cell division, the centrosome duplicates and then as division begins, the two centrosomes move to opposite ends of the cell. Protein referred to as microtubules assemble into spindle between the two centrosomes and help separate the replicated chromosomes into the daughter cells.

What You Need To Know About Centrosome

  1. The centrosome is the organelle that is found in a specific region of the cell near the nuclear membrane which acts as the primary microtubule organizing center of the cell.
  2. Centrosomes are present in a single pair located near the nuclear membrane at the start of the cell division process. After cell division, each daughter cell gets one copy of a centrosome.
  3. A centrosome is of variable size but always bigger than a Centriole.
  4. The centrosome is present in animals and found near to the nucleus.
  5. Centromeres replicate in the S phase but produce only a single copy of themselves.
  6. Centrosomes have no definite shape and are comprised of more than one component.
  7. Centrosome is made up of two centrioles oriented at right angles to each other.
  8. The function of the centrosome is to provide organize the centrioles and microtubules during the process of cell division.
  9. Mutation in the structure of centrosome (post translational abnormalities of the proteins forming the centrosome complex) may result to presence or absence of an extra copy of the centromere. Defects in centrosome are linked to certain types of cancers.
  10. There are different type and structure of centrosome among species. 

What Is Centriole?

A Centriole is a cylindrical organelle composed mainly of a protein referred to as tubulin. Centrioles are found in most eukaryotic cells. The main function of centrioles is to produce cilia during interphase and the aster and the spindle during cell division. They also help determine the locations of the nucleus and other organelles within the cell.

While centrioles are typically found in eukaryotic cells, they are absent in higher plants. In these plants, then, cells do not use centrioles during cell division. Centrioles can also be found in:

  • Animal cells
  • Lower plants
  • The base of cilia and flagella (as basal bodies).

What You Need To Know About Centriole

  1. The Centriole is a cylindrical structure that is found in eukaryotic cells. It is made up of a protein referred to as tubulin. Tubulin is a globular protein that forms microtubules.
  2. Centrioles are present in pairs of two in the cell, during cell division. After cell division, each cell has one pair of centrioles.
  3. A Centriole has dimensions that are approximately 500 nm long and 200 nm wide.
  4. Centrioles are present in protists and animal cells and found inside the cell membrane or near the cilia and flagella.
  5. Centrioles replicate in the S phase and two copies of a pair of centrioles are formed.
  6. Centrioles are cylindrical in shape.
  7. Centriole is made up of 9 triplets of microtubules arranging to form a cylindrical structure.
  8. The function of the centrioles is to form the mitotic spindle during late metaphase and early anaphase of the cell cycle. The centrioles also help in the formation of cilia and flagella that aid in movement of the sperm and ova during fertilization.
  9. Mutations in the genes encoding for the Centriole can lead to defect in its structure or number. This eventually result to improper cell division that leading to development of diseases like Meckel-Gruber syndrome.
  10. There are two types of centrioles found species.  Atypical and typical.  The typical centrioles are those that use other structures rather than microtubules.

Difference Between Centrosome And Centriole

BASIS OF COMPARISON CENTROSOME CENTRIOLE
Description The centrosome is the organelle that is found in a specific region of the cell near the nuclear membrane which acts as the primary microtubule organizing center of the cell.   The Centriole is a cylindrical structure that is found in eukaryotic cells. It is made up of a protein referred to as tubulin.
Types There are different type and structure of centrosome among species.    There are two types of centrioles found species.  Atypical and typical.  The typical centrioles are those that use other structures rather than microtubules.  
Structure Centrosomes are present in a single pair located near the nuclear membrane at the start of the cell division process. After cell division, each daughter cell gets one copy of a centrosome.   Centrioles are present in pairs of two in the cell, during cell division. After cell division, each cell has one pair of centrioles.  
Dimension A centrosome is of variable size but always bigger than a Centriole.   A Centriole has dimensions that are approximately 500 nm long and 200 nm wide.  
Presence The centrosome is present in animals and found near to the nucleus.   Centrioles are present in protists and animal cells and found inside the cell membrane or near the cilia and flagella.  
Replication Centromeres replicate in the S phase but produce only a single copy of themselves.   Centrioles replicate in the S phase and two copies of a pair of centrioles are formed.  
Shape Centrosomes have no definite shape and are comprised of more than one component.   Centrioles are cylindrical in shape.  
Structure Centrosome is made up of two centrioles oriented at right angles to each other.   Centriole is made up of 9 triplets of microtubules arranging to form a cylindrical structure.  
Function The function of the centrosome is to provide organize the centrioles and microtubules during the process of cell division.   The function of the centrioles is to form the mitotic spindle during late metaphase and early anaphase of the cell cycle.
Mutations Mutation in the structure of centrosome (post translational abnormalities of the proteins forming the centrosome complex) may result to presence or absence of an extra copy of the centromere. Defects in centrosome are linked to certain types of cancers.   Mutations in the genes encoding for the Centriole can lead to defect in its structure or number. This eventually result to improper cell division that leading to development of diseases like Meckel-Gruber syndrome.  

Similarities Between Centrosome And Centriole

  • Both Centriole and centrosome were discovered by Edourado van Beneden
  • They are both present in all eukaryotes and absent in flowering plants and fungi
  • They both play a significant role in mitotic cell division.